Comet 67P/CG Nucleus Composition and Comparison to Other Comets

  title={Comet 67P/CG Nucleus Composition and Comparison to Other Comets},
  author={Gianrico Filacchione and O. Groussin and Cl{\'e}mence Herny and David Kappel and Stefano Mottola and N. Oklay and Antoine Pommerol and I. P. Wright and Zuri{\~n}e Yoldi and Mauro Ciarniello and Lyuba Moroz and Andrea Raponi},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
We review our current knowledge of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko nucleus composition as inferred from measurements made by remote sensing and in-situ instruments aboard Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander. Spectrophotometric properties (albedos, color indexes and Hapke parameters) of 67P/CG derived by Rosetta are discussed in the context of other comets previously explored by space missions. Composed of an assemblage made of ices, organic materials and minerals, cometary nuclei exhibit very… 

Comet nuclei composition and evolution

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Hydroxylated Mg-rich Amorphous Silicates: A New Component of the 3.2 μm Absorption Band of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

The VIRTIS imaging spectrometer on board Rosetta has shown that the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P/CG) is characterized by a broad absorption band at around 3.2 μm. The

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Organic Matter in Cometary Environments

Results both from Earth-based studies as well as spacecraft missions to comets are summarized, highlighted by the Rosetta mission, which orbited comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko for two years, providing unprecedented insights into the nature of comets.

Ammonium salts are a reservoir of nitrogen on a cometary nucleus and possibly on some asteroids

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Molecular nitrogen in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicates a low formation temperature

Direct measurements of N2 by instruments aboard the Rosetta spacecraft provide clues about the comet’s long history and depletion of molecular nitrogen at levels that are depleted compared to those in the primordial solar system suggests that the comet formed at low-temperature conditions below ~30 kelvin.

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The VIRTIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.

Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta

Cometary ices are rich in CO2, CO and organic volatile compounds, but the carbon content of cometary dust was only measured for the Oort Cloud comet 1P/Halley, during its flyby in 1986. The COmetary

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The chemical composition of two distinct fragments of 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are remarkably similar in composition, in marked contrast to the chemical diversity within the overall comet population and contrary to the expectation that short-period comets should show strong compositional variation with depth in the nucleus owing to evolutionary processing from numerous close passages to the Sun.

Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

The stratigraphy observed on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is the result of evolutionary processes affecting the uppermost metres of the nucleus and does not necessarily require a global layering to have occurred at the time of the comet’s formation.

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Seasonal mass transfer on the nucleus of comet 67P/Chuyumov–Gerasimenko

We collect observational evidence that supports the scheme of mass transfer on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The obliquity of the rotation axis of 67P causes strong seasonal

The presence of clathrates in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

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