Combustion smoke exposure induces up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, aquaporin 4, nitric oxide synthases and vascular permeability in the retina of adult rats.


Retinal cells respond to various experimental stimuli including hypoxia, yet it remains to be investigated whether they react to smoke inhalation. We show here that retinal cells in rats, notably the ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes and blood vessels responded vigorously to a smoke challenge. The major changes included up-regulated expression of… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.007


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