Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus

@article{Lovejoy2009CombiningPA,
  title={Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus},
  author={C. Owen Lovejoy and Bruce M. Latimer and Gen Suwa and Berhane Abrha Asfaw and Tim D. White},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={326},
  pages={72 - 72e8}
}
Several elements of the Ardipithecus ramidus foot are preserved, primarily in the ARA-VP-6/500 partial skeleton. The foot has a widely abducent hallux, which was not propulsive during terrestrial bipedality. However, it lacks the highly derived tarsometatarsal laxity and inversion in extant African apes that provide maximum conformity to substrates during vertical climbing. Instead, it exhibits primitive characters that maintain plantar rigidity from foot-flat through toe-off, reminiscent of… 

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