Combining Opioid and Adrenergic Mechanisms for Chronic Pain

  title={Combining Opioid and Adrenergic Mechanisms for Chronic Pain},
  author={Howard S. Smith and Robert B Raffa and Joseph V. Pergolizzi and Robert Taylor and Ronald J. Tallarida},
  journal={Postgraduate Medicine},
  pages={114 - 98}
Abstract Chronic pain is a highly prevalent medical problem in the United States. Although opioids and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have demonstrated efficacy for relief of chronic pain, each has risks of adverse events in patients. Because of the risk of opioid abuse and addiction, combinations reducing opioid requirements are particularly valuable. Opioid and SNRI agents relieve pain by different pathways; concurrent use of each agent separately offers many potential… 
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    Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
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