Combined poor diabetes control indicators are associated with higher risks of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema than poor glycemic control alone

PURPOSE To examine the association of individual and combined indicators of diabetes control with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this clinical, cross-sectional study, 613 adults with type 2 diabetes (372 any diabetic retinopathy; 183 any diabetic macular edema) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed… (More)