Combined effects of estrogen deficiency and cadmium exposure on calcified hard tissues: Animal model relating to itai-itai disease in postmenopausal women

Abstract

Using ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal women, we studied the effects of estrogen (Es) deficiency and in combination with cadmium (Cd) exposure on the calcified hard tissues related to the development of itai-itai disease. Es deficiency suppressed the synthesis of carbonic anhydrase required for the crystal nucleation process, causing the… (More)

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