Combined effects of caffeine and alcohol during pregnancy on bones in newborn rats.


The combined effects of caffeine and alcohol on mineral contents of fetal mandibles and femurs were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups: group 1, control; group 2, caffeine; group 3, alcohol; and group 4, caffeine-plus-alcohol. Alcohol (1.0 g ethanol/kg body weight) was intubated twice daily, beginning at day 9 of gestation. Caffeine (2 mg… (More)


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