BACKGROUND Stress nuclear imaging is the noninvasive technique currently used to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) in dialysis patients. Stress echocardiography is recognized as an alternative to stress nuclear imaging for the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of stress echocardiography for detecting myocardial ischemia in hemodialysis patients. METHODS Stress echocardiography and stress technetium-99m-tetrofosmin (Myoview; Amersham International Plc) imaging were performed simultaneously for 66 asymptomatic hemodialysis patients in a single session, using a combination of high-dose dipyridamole and symptom-limited exercise. Coronary angiography was performed in 44 patients with at least one abnormal noninvasive test result or who were considered high-risk despite normal noninvasive test results. RESULTS Results for stress echocardiography were abnormal in 15 patients (22%); stress Myoview, in 14 patients (21%); and coronary angiography, in 12 patients (18%). The sensitivity of stress echocardiography for detecting myocardial ischemia (defined as stress Myoview defect) was 86%; specificity, 94%; positive predictive value, 80%; negative predictive value, 96%; and overall accuracy, 92%. The sensitivity of stress echocardiography for detecting CAD (defined as abnormal coronary angiography result) was 83%; specificity, 84%; positive predictive value, 67%; negative predictive value, 93%; and overall accuracy, 84%. Stress echocardiography and stress Myoview did not differ significantly in overall accuracy for detecting CAD (84% versus 91%; P = not significant). CONCLUSION In hemodialysis patients, combined dipyridamole-exercise echocardiography is an accurate method to detect both myocardial ischemia and CAD and represents an alternative to stress nuclear imaging.