Solid phase peptide synthesis method, which was introduced by Merrifield in 1963, has spawned the concept of combinatorial chemistry. In this review, we summarize the present technologies of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) that are related to combinatorial chemistry. The conventional methods of peptide library synthesis on polymer support are parallel synthesis, split and mix synthesis and reagent mixture synthesis. Combining surface chemistry with the recent technology of microelectronic semiconductor fabrication system, the peptide microarray synthesis methods on a planar solid support are developed, which leads to spatially addressable peptide library. There are two kinds of peptide microarray synthesis methodologies: pre-synthesized peptide immobilization onto a glass or membrane substrate and in situ peptide synthesis by a photolithography or the SPOT method. This review also discusses the application of peptide libraries for high-throughput bioassays, for example, peptide ligand screening for antibody or cell signaling, enzyme substrate and inhibitor screening as well as other applications.