Colour blindness and driving

  title={Colour blindness and driving},
  author={Barry L. Cole},
  journal={Clinical and Experimental Optometry},
  pages={484 - 487}
  • B. Cole
  • Published 1 September 2016
  • Environmental Science
  • Clinical and Experimental Optometry
Road traffic signals use a red, green and yellow colour code and we know that persons with abnormal colour vision can confuse these colours.Motor vehicle tail and brake lights are red, the colour that connotes danger and we know that those with a protan colour vision deficiency have a significantly lower than normal sensitivity to red light. They will have a reduced visual range for red traffic signals, tail lights and brake lights and may also fail to see lower-intensity red retro-reflectors… 

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  • J. Wood
  • Environmental Science
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 2019
The low light levels at night are believed to be the major cause of collisions with pedestrians and cyclists at night, most likely due to their reduced visibility.

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It is argued that the imposition of a colour vision standard on drivers could well yield returns comparable to those from traffic engineering measures such as improvement of street lighting, and the alternative of improving signal and warning lights is preferred.

New investigations concerning the relationships between congenital colour vision defects and road traffic security

The practical conclusions are that persons with defective colour vision need not to be excluded from non professional road traffic and that it is nevertheless useful that they should be aware of their handicap.

Defective colour vision is a risk factor in driving

It is shown that protans have significantly more rear-end collisions and other accidents caused by overlooking signal lights than other drivers, and that Deutans had more accidents at traffic lights.

Color and Defective Color Vision as Factors in the Conspicuity of Signs and Signals

It is concluded that redundant color coding does contribute to the conspicuity of signs and signals and that deuteranopes---and probably those with other severe forms of defective color vision---have a significantly reduced ability to notice colored targets, such as road Signs and signals, in complex visual environments.

Protan colour vision deficiency and road accidents

  • B. Cole
  • Medicine
    Clinical & experimental optometry
  • 2002
The level of risk of road accidents due to protan colour vision deficiency is reviewed and whether it is fair to regard all protans as having a higher risk ofRoad accident because some protans might have a sensitivity to red light that is as good as that of some people with normal colour vision.


  • A. VingrysB. Cole
  • Computer Science
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 1986
A chronological account of the introduction of colour vision standards by several national transport authorities is given and it is concluded that the same factors that gave rise to the adoption of early color vision standards are still relevant for modern transport systems.

The handicap of abnormal colour vision

  • B. Cole
  • Law
    Clinical & experimental optometry
  • 2004
This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems people with abnormal colour vision have and the decisions that have been made to exclude them from employment.

What Do Color Vision Defectives Say About Everyday Tasks?

  • Judy M. StewardB. Cole
  • Psychology
    Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • 1989
Nearly 90% of dichromats and up to two-thirds of anomalous trichomats reported difficulties with everyday tasks that involve color, and many had been excluded from a chosen occupation.

Visual function of drivers and its relationship to road traffic accidents in Urban Africa

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  • W. Charman
  • Sociology
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 1985
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