Colossus: its origins and originators

  title={Colossus: its origins and originators},
  author={B. Jack Copeland},
  journal={IEEE Annals of the History of Computing},
  • B. Copeland
  • Published 1 October 2004
  • History
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
The British Colossus computer was one of the most important tools in the wartime effort to break German codes. Based on interviews and on recently declassified documents, this article clarifies the roles played by Thomas Flowers, Alan Turing, William Tutte, and Max Newman in the events leading to the installation of the first Colossus at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime code-breaking establishment, in December 1943. 

In the footsteps of Colossus: a description of Oedipus

  • S. Lavington
  • Psychology
    IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  • 2006
Oedipus, a special-purpose rapid analytical machine using novel digital storage, developed by GCHQ and the UK companies Elliott and Ferranti, and its history has only recently been made publicly available.

The Manchester Computer: A Revised History Part 1: The Memory

  • B. Copeland
  • History
    IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  • 2011
The Manchester Baby, built by F.C. Williams and Tom Kilburn and operational in June 1948, was the first stored-program electronic computer. The Williams-Kilburn tube memory, pioneered in the Baby,

Criptología Nazi. Los Códigos Secretos de Hitler

This article considers the importance of the German Enigma and Lorenz codes cracking by the allies through the analitical work developed by many mathematicians, which had vital consequences for the

Advances in I/O, Speedup, and Universality on Colossus, an Unconventional Computer

A universal Turing machine could have been implemented on a clustering of the ten Colossus machines installed at Bletchley Park, England, by the end of WWII in 1945, according to the hardware capability and specification of Colossus.

Thomas Harold ("Tommy") Flowers: Designer of the Colossus Codebreaking Machines

  • T. Haigh
  • Art, Computer Science
    IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput.
  • 2018
Tommy Flowers, born 22 December 1905, died 28 October 1998, designed the Colossus codebreaking machines.

Unwinding performance and power on Colossus, an unconventional computer

  • B. Wells
  • Computer Science
    Natural Computing
  • 2010
It is seen that a UTM could have been implemented on a clustering of the ten Colossus machines installed at Bletchley Park, England, by the end of WWII in 1945, and several advances in input, output, speed, processing, and applications are offered.

Experimental Archaeology of Computer Science

The reconstruction of the MR technology reveals a remarkable machine for its time, different and for several reasons even more interesting than its 1961 companion.

Securing significant patterns: The enigma of forma

Fractal Realism The Folding Together of Literature, Technical Media, and Cognition in the Twentieth Century

Author(s): Pulizzi, James | Advisor(s): Hayles, Nancy K; Reinhard, Kenneth | Abstract: Media theorists as far back as Marshall McLuhan and as recent as Friedrich Kittler and Jonathan Crary have

Alan Turing

When the name ”Alan Turing” is mentioned most people think of one or more of the following words: ”Turing Machine”, ”Turing Test”, ”Enigma” and ”Artificial Intelligence”. The intention of this



50 Years after breaking the codes: interviews with two of the Bletchley Park scientists

Two of the participants in the code breaking activities and in the postwar computer development at Bletchley Park came together on the fiftieth anniversary of their earlier association to reminisce about those times, the people they met, and the achievements of the BP community.

The Design of Colossus (foreword by Howard Campaigne)

The construction and operation of the Colossus machines were described, which had most if not all of the essential features of a modern computer, except that variable programming was provided not by memory store but by hard-wired function units selected and interconnected by switches operated by the mathematician-programmers.

The Universal Computer: The Road from Leibniz to Turing

In this revised edition Davis discusses the success of the IBM Watson on Jeopardy, reorganizes the information on incompleteness, and adds information on Konrad Zuse.

The Lorenz Cipher Machine Sz42

The German cipher traffic called tunny which was broken at Bletchley Park using the Colossus machine was produced bu an in-line “cipher-attachment” made by Lorenz, Schlussel Zusatz or SZ42. This

On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem

  • A. Turing
  • Computer Science
    Proc. London Math. Soc.
  • 1937
This chapter discusses the application of the diagonal process of the universal computing machine, which automates the calculation of circle and circle-free numbers.

The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena

In a recent paper it has been shown that it is possible to use a mechanical relay and a counting meter in conjunction with a valve amplifier for auto­matic numerical counting of α-particles, and how this defect may be overcome by the use of thyratron valves in place of mechanical relays.

Computer pioneers

Letters on Logic to Max Newman The Essential Turing

  • Letters on Logic to Max Newman The Essential Turing
  • 2004

Univ. of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800

  • Univ. of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800