Color-pattern modifications and speciation in butterflies of the genus Vanessa and its related genera Cynthia and Bassaris.

@article{Otaki2004ColorpatternMA,
  title={Color-pattern modifications and speciation in butterflies of the genus Vanessa and its related genera Cynthia and Bassaris.},
  author={Joji M. Otaki and Haruhiko Yamamoto},
  journal={Zoological science},
  year={2004},
  volume={21 9},
  pages={967-76}
}
We have previously shown that the systemic injection of sodium tungstate, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor, to pupae immediately after pupation efficiently produces characteristic color-pattern modifications on the wings of many species of butterflies including Vanessa indica and Cynthia cardui. In these species, the black spots reduced in size in response to the treatment. Similar modifications are occasionally seen in the field-caught aberrant individuals. Exceptionally… CONTINUE READING