Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size.

  title={Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size.},
  author={Israel Abramov and J. Gordon and Hoover Chan},
  journal={Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science},
  volume={8 2},
  • I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan
  • Published 1 February 1991
  • Biology
  • Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science
Hue and saturation scaling were used to measure the appearance of spectral lights as a function of stimulus size for nine loci across the horizontal retinal meridian. At a given locus, each hue (R, Y, G, and B) grew as a function of stimulus size up to some asymptotic value. The parameter values of Michaelis-Menten growth functions fitted to the hue data were used to derive the sizes of the so-called perceptive fields of the hue mechanisms. The fields for all mechanisms increased with… 
Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround.
The results of repeating the study with stimuli embedded in a white surround rather than in darkness are reported, with the main effects of the white surround being that sizes of perceptive fields of all mechanisms were smaller everywhere than with the dark surround.
Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields.
Perceptive field sizes of all four hues decrease with increasing stimulus intensity, though the absolute change is largest for green and yellow, and the decrease in size with increase in intensity cannot be completely explained in terms of saturation or rod signals and is likely to be attributable to a cone-based mechanism.
Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance.
Results indicate that perceptive field sizes for blue, green, yellow, and saturation all decrease with increasing retinal illuminance; the perceptiveField size for red is the smallest and invariant with intensity.
Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians
Perceptive field sizes measured in the bleach condition were consistent with degree of neural convergence of cones to ganglion cells across the retina rather than differences in cone density, and rod densities relative to cone densities correlated with the size of perceptive fields in the no-bleach condition.
Red-green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision.
  • A. Nagy, J. Doyal
  • Psychology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science
  • 1993
Red-green color-discrimination thresholds were measured at eccentricities of 10 and 25 deg in the nasal retina both during the cone plateau and after dark adaptation, suggesting that rod signals reduce discrimination.
Effects of colour adaptation and stimulus size on the detection of chromatic deviations from achromatic as a function of eccentricity in man
  • A. Iivanainen, J. Rovamo
  • Biology
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 1994
By using constant size and M‐scaled stimuli, the thresholds for perceiving the complementary colours of blue, green and red under chromatic adaptation at the eccentricities of 0–15° in the nasal visual field were measured and the difference was found to be constant irrespective of stimulus size and eccentricity.
Color Appearance of Object Colors in Peripheral Vision at Various Illuminance Levels
The color appearance in peripheral vision was studied for chromatic object colors over a wide illuminance range from photopic to scotopic vision. Swedish NCS color samples with the existing maximum
Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina.
The findings suggest that perceived shifts in saturation and hue are mediated largely via the reduction in activation of the L-M cone-opponent channel but that saturation and Hue might be subject to different retinal and/or cortical influences that contribute to their differing size dependencies in the peripheral retina.
Binocular vs. monocular hue perception
Color perception in the intermediate periphery of the visual field.
It is found that chromatic detection gets worse with increasing eccentricity but is still possible even at large eccentricities, and the results show thatchromatic detection at these eccentricities is mediated by cone-opponent mechanisms.


Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color.
The results obtained with four observers confirm the presence of tritanopia when small brief stimuli are viewed foveally but fail to confirm it in the periphery, giving support to the notion that fovealtritanopia is due to the depressed sensitivity of the blue receptor mechanism found in the central fovea.
Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation.
From a modified form of color matching, it was concluded that the color deficiency in the periphery is more tritanlike than deutanlike, strengthened by the observation, that, for small peripheral targets, hues are generally apportioned between two hue categories and the change from one to the other is at about 580 nm.
Luminance requirements for hue perception in small targets.
  • M. Connors
  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • 1968
The results show that, with sufficient luminance, these hues can be seen even for stimuli as small as 0.35 min of arc diam, which is generally perceived at lower luminances than blue or green.
Color vision in the peripheral retina.
Two studies are described which demonstrate that peripheral and central chromatic processing are the same to the first order if the changes in spatial scale and photopic sensitivity with eccentricity are considered.
Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity.
Spectral sensitivity was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry both in the fovea and at 45 degrees in the periphery, using a 1200 troland standard to rule out the possibility of a rod contribution to the peripheral functions.
Colour Perception with the Peripheral Retina
The results indicate a progressive deterioration in colour perception with distance from the fovea: tending, under the conditions of the experiment, to dichromatism at 25°-30° and to monochromatismAt 40°–50°.
Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field.
Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination are determined along the nasal horizontal meridian of the human peripheral retina and foveal wavelength discrimination is considerably better than peripheral wavelength discrimination.
Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance
Colors of objects are often specified by color matches in some standard colorimetric system. While color-matching allows a color to be reproduced accurately, it does not specify what the color
Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina.
It is suggested that previous findings of maximum photopic sensitivity in the short-wave region of the spectrum resulted from chromatic adaptation induced by backgrounds (such as Source A) that were weighted towards middle and long waves.