Color-Shift Keying—How Its Largest Obtainable “Minimum Distance” Depends on Its Preset Operating Chromaticity and Constellation Size

  title={Color-Shift Keying—How Its Largest Obtainable “Minimum Distance” Depends on Its Preset Operating Chromaticity and Constellation Size},
  author={Amena Ejaz Aziz and Kainam Thomas Wong and Jung-Chieh Chen},
  journal={Journal of Lightwave Technology},
Color-shift keying (CSK) is a type of visible light wireless communication, where a visible color is preset and is to appear constant during the human vision's “critical flicker fusion threshold” and “critical color fusion threshold.” This paper is first in the open literature to systematically investigate how CSK's largest achievable “minimum distance” (<inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">$d_{\min }$</tex-math> </inline-formula>) would vary with the preset chromaticity and with the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Coding for Visible Light Communication Using Color-Shift Keying Constellations
The channel coding for VLC using CSK is studied under constraints of no color shift and no illumination flicker during transmission and design codes over newly introduced symmetric symbol constellations over a triangle intensity plane are studied.
Two-Level Laser Diode Color-Shift-Keying Orthogonal-Frequency-Division-Multiplexing (LD-CSK-OFDM) for Optical Wireless Communications (OWC)
A two-level LD based color-shift-keying orthogonal-frequency- division-multiplexing (CSK OFDM) signal for the OWC systems that cannot only provide non-flickering effect to minimize human health concern, but also can enhance the transmission data rate of the CSK system.
Heuristic, machine learning approach to 8-CSK decision regions in RGB-LED visible light communication
This work presented a heuristic, machine learning-based approach to determine the best performing 8-CSK constellation and the most suitable algorithm to classify received 8- CSK modulated signals in terms of classification accuracy and bit-error rate (BER).
Color-Shift-Keying Embedded Direct-Current Optical-Orthogonal-Frequency-Division-Multiplexing (CSK-DCO-OFDM) for Visible Light Communications (VLC)
A color-shift-keying embedded direct-current-optical-orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (CSK-DCO-OFDM) scheme for the VLC systems can provide not only non-flickering aggregated optical power to reduce human health concerns, but also offers additional modulation dimension or flexibility to the CSK by including high data rate OFDM signal.
Space-time-color coding for QuadLED Color Shift Keying Modulation for Visible Light Communications
A novel coding scheme to Visible Light Communications (VLC) systems is proposed by using color diversity in addition to the expected diversity gains to alleviate the impact of monochromatic degradation of the visible light channel while still providing the regular space and time diversity gains.
Color-shift-keying performance under cross talk
Color shift keying (CSK) is one modulation scheme for visible light communication (VLC), where data transmission is through instantaneous shifts in the composite color of three emitting LEDs, each
Non-Uniform Time Slot Based Modulation for Visible Light Communication System
A new modulation scheme for indoor wireless visible light communication system named non-uniform time slot modulation (NUTS), which defines the feeder signals of red, green and blue LEDs as rectangular pulses with appropriate width and their positions.
Outage Probability of a CSK Transmission in Visible Light Communications Systems
  • A. Ndjiongue, T. Ngatched
  • Computer Science
    2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC)
  • 2020
This paper analyzes the outage probability, i.e., the probability that the locally measured signal-to-noise ratio of a CSK link falls under a threshold predefined for a specific quality of service.
Indoor Optical Wireless Systems: Technology, Trends, and Applications
  • T. Koonen
  • Computer Science
    Journal of Lightwave Technology
  • 2018
This paper gives a tutorial overview of two major directions in OWC: wide-coverage visible light communication which builds on LED illumination techniques and shares capacity among multiple devices, and communication with narrow 2-D steered infrared beams which offers unshared high capacity to devices individually.


Constellation design for color-shift keying using interior point methods
In this work, a rigorous design framework for CSK constellations is presented based on interior point methods and a differentiable approximation to the CSK constellation design problem is presented, compatible with commercial interior point optimization algorithms and is used to find locally optimal symbol sets.
Constellation Design for Multi-color Visible Light Communications
In this paper, we propose a novel high dimensional constellation design scheme for visible light communication (VLC) systems employing red/green/blue light emitting diodes (RGB LEDs). It is in fact a
Analysis and Design of Three-Stage Concatenated Color-Shift Keying
Based on the EXIT characteristics of M-CSK, different signal labeling strategies for diverse color constellations and detection schemes are designed, which are capable of achieving a substantially improved bit-error-rate (BER) performance.
Improved performance of colour shift keying using voronoi segmentation for indoor communication
Simple linear equalization by LMS and RLS is found suitable to mitigate ISI and provide improved symbol error rate performance and increased field of view in the receiver and Monte Carlo simulation shows superiority of Voronoi segmentation method over the other existing CSK constellation decoding.
Design and Implementation of Color-Shift Keying for Visible Light Communications
In this work, a rigorous design framework for high order CSK constellations is presented and, unlike previous approaches, the method is capable of optimizing 3-Dconstellations.
An Enhanced Color Shift Keying Modulation Scheme for High-Speed Wireless Visible Light Communications
The performance of existing and proposed CSK systems is examined over a range of dispersive optical wireless channels including the channel crosstalk and insertion losses, which reveals that the four color CSK scheme is more power efficient and reliable than the three color scheme for a particular amount of delay spread that the optical wireless channel may have.
Constellation design for color-shift keying using billiards algorithms
This work examines the design of CSK signaling constellations for an additive white Gaussian noise channel, incorporating the common requirement that the RGB LED outputs a specific, possibly time-varying, perceived color.
Symbol error rate analysis for colour-shift keying modulation in visible light communication system with RGB light-emitting diodes
The authors map the three-dimensional signal space of CSK signals to a 2D plane because the decision region of constellations in 2D space is easy to analyse and is proved to be equivalent to that of 3D signal space.
Low-complexity colour-shift keying-based visible light communications system
Colour-shift keying (CSK) has emerged as a new modulation scheme for indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems, standardised in IEEE 802.15.7. This scheme transmits data by modulating the
The color shift key modulation with non-uniform signaling for visible light communication
This paper analyzes the illumination and communication performances of CSK signals, including flicker effect, dimming range, color rendering index (CRI), luminous efficacy rate (LER), variable data rate and error probability, and also generates the optimized power weights combination group of the red, green and blue light emitted from a RGB LED.