Colony Social Organisation and Alternative Social Strategies in the Eastern Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa virginica

@article{Richards2011ColonySO,
  title={Colony Social Organisation and Alternative Social Strategies in the Eastern Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa virginica},
  author={Miriam H. Richards},
  journal={Journal of Insect Behavior},
  year={2011},
  volume={24},
  pages={399-411}
}
The eastern carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica, can nest either solitarily or in groups. In southern Ontario, Canada, near the northern edge of the range, most nests are social, containing groups of two to five adult females. Although social nests were much more frequent than solitary ones, they produced no more brood, so per capita brood productivity was actually lower for social females. Social females exhibited several reproductive strategies inferred from wing wear patterns, which reflect… CONTINUE READING

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