Colonization constraints during primary succession on coastal Lake Michigan sand dunes

Abstract

1 Primary succession on coastal sand dunes has generally been presumed to be driven by autogenic environmental change associated with dune stabilization and gradual soil development. 2 An extensive chronosequence of dune-capped beach ridges is found adjacent to northern Lake Michigan and the youngest 13 ridges (aged 30±440 years old) show a clear pattern of… (More)

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15 Figures and Tables