Colloquium paper: how grandmother effects plus individual variation in frailty shape fertility and mortality: guidance from human-chimpanzee comparisons.

  • Kristen Hawkes
  • Published 2010 in
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…


In the first paper to present formal theory explaining that senescence is a consequence of natural selection, W. D. Hamilton concluded that human postmenopausal longevity results from the contributions of ancestral grandmothers to the reproduction of their relatives. A grandmother hypothesis, subsequently elaborated with additional lines of evidence, helps… (More)
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0914627107


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