Colloquium: Theory of quantum corrals and quantum mirages

  title={Colloquium: Theory of quantum corrals and quantum mirages},
  author={Gregory A. Fiete and Eric J Heller},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Quantum corrals are two-dimensional structures built atom by atom on an atomically clean metallic surface using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). These two-dimensional structures ``corral'' electrons in the surface states of noble metals, leading to standing-wave patterns in the electron density inside the quantum corral. The authors review the physics of quantum corrals and relate the signal of the STM to the scattering properties of substrate electrons from atomic impurities supported on… 
Kondo-free mirages in elliptical quantum corrals
By building elliptical quantum corrals of adatoms on a metal surface, the authors establish the mechanism of Kondo-free mirages and utilize it to build atomic-scale logic gates.
Electron states in quantum corrals
  • S. Crampin
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2004
A new three–dimensional scattering model is introduced that extends the description of the electron states within quantum corrals and which can form the basis of many–body calculations of the lifetimes of confined electrons.
Quantum corral resonance widths: lossy scattering as acoustics.
Pursuing an exact analogy between the local density of states of a quantum corral and the acoustic impedance of a concert hall, it is shown electron lifetimes in nanoscopic structures of arbitrary convex shape are well accounted for by the Sabine formula for acoustic reverberation times.
Mirages and many-body effects in quantum corrals
In an experiment on quantum mirages, confinement of surface states in an elliptical corral has been used to project the Kondo effect from one focus where a magnetic impurity was placed to the other,
Coupling quantum corrals to form artificial molecules
Quantum corrals can be considered as artificial atoms. By coupling many quantum corrals together, artificial matter can be created at will. The atomic scale precision with which the quantum corrals
Quantum confinement in self-assembled two-dimensional nanoporous honeycomb networks at close-packed metal surfaces.
The combined analysis of several observations suggests that the scattering potentials created by the network originate primarily from the adsorbate-induced changes of the local surface dipole barrier.
Direct observation of quantum confinement of massless Dirac fermions in a topological insulator
Since the discovery of topological insulators (TIs)1,2, the peculiar nature of their chiral surface states has been experimentally demonstrated both in bulk and in film materials with open
Correlations, quantum entanglement and interference in nanoscopic systems
Several of the most interesting quantum effects can or could be observed in nanoscopic systems. For example, the effect of strong correlations between electrons and of quantum interference can be
Quantum corral effects on competing orders and electronic states in chiral d + id or f-wave superconductors.
  • X. Zuo
  • Physics
    Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
  • 2018
It is demonstrated that a magnetic corral can suppress the formation of quasi-particle bound states induced by an impurity inside the corral in the chiral d + id state while the f-wave case shows different behaviors.
Quantum corral wave-function engineering
We present a theoretical method for the design and optimization of quantum corrals with specific electronic properties. Taking advantage that spins are subject to a RKKY interaction that is directly


Scattering and absorption of surface electron waves in quantum corrals
STANDING-WAVE patterns in electron density have been seen recently1–4 in images of the surfaces of noble metals obtained with the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). These patterns are due to the
Quantum interference in 2D atomic-scale structures
Quantum mirages formed by coherent projection of electronic structure
The projection of the electronic structure surrounding a magnetic Co atom to a remote location on the surface of a Cu crystal is reported; electron partial waves scattered from the real Co atom are coherently refocused to form a spectral image or ‘quantum mirage’.
Elastic scattering theory for electronic waves in quantum corrals.
  • Harbury, Porod
  • Physics
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter
  • 1996
A coherent elastic scattering theory is presented for the electronic states in these ‘‘leaky’’ confining structures by seeking solutions of the two-dimensional Schrodinger equation compatible with Sommerfeld radiation conditions, and it is led to the conclusion that the Fe adatoms are well modeled by finite-height potential barriers.
Fully three-dimensional scattering calculations of standing electron waves in quantum nanostructures: The importance of quasiparticle interactions.
Full multiple-scattering calculations of surface-state electrons in quantum nanostructures built from a small number of adatoms confirm the nature of electron confinement deduced from a previous continuum model and highlight the role of the intrinsic electron lifetime in determining spectral features.
Nonequilibrium theory of scanning tunneling spectroscopy via adsorbate resonances: Nonmagnetic and Kondo impurities
We report on a fully nonequilibrium theory of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) through resonances induced by impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces. The theory takes into account the effect of
Thermal damping of quantum interference patterns of surface-state electrons
The temperature-dependent damping of quantum-mechanical interference patterns from surface-state electrons scattering off steps on Ag(111) and Cu(111) has been studied using scanning tunneling
Confinement of Electrons to Quantum Corrals on a Metal Surface
Tuning spectroscopy performed inside of the corrals revealed a series of discrete resonances, providing evidence for size quantization and STM images show that the corral's interior local density of states is dominated by the eigenstate density expected for an electron trapped in a round two-dimensional box.
A simple interpretation of quantum mirages
Scattering theory of Kondo mirages and observation of single Kondo atom phase shift.
The Kondo mirage observed at the empty focus of an elliptical quantum corral is shown to arise from multiple electron bounces off the corral wall adatoms.