Colloquium: Artificial spin ice : Designing and imaging magnetic frustration

@article{Nisoli2013ColloquiumAS,
  title={Colloquium: Artificial spin ice : Designing and imaging magnetic frustration},
  author={Cristiano Nisoli and Roderich Moessner and Peter Schiffer},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
  year={2013},
  volume={85},
  pages={1473-1490}
}
Frustration, the presence of competing interactions, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences and is a source of degeneracy and disorder, which in turn gives rise to new and interesting physical phenomena. Perhaps nowhere does it occur more simply than in correlated spin systems, where it has been studied in the most detail. In disordered magnetic materials, frustration leads to spin-glass phenomena, with analogies to the behavior of structural glasses and neural networks. In structurally ordered… 
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