Colloidal matter: Packing, geometry, and entropy

  title={Colloidal matter: Packing, geometry, and entropy},
  author={Vinothan N. Manoharan},
Learning from the packing of particles Colloidal particles, which consist of clusters of hundreds or thousands of atoms, can still resemble atomic systems. In particular, colloids have been used to study the packing of spheres and the influence of short-range interactions on crystallization and melting. Manoharan reviews these similarities, as well as the cases in which colloidal particles show behavior not seen in atomic systems. For example, the packing of nonspherical objects, where geometry… 
Relevance of packing to colloidal self-assembly
It is found that the best particle shapes for hard particle colloidal crystals at any finite pressure are imperfect versions of the ideal packing shape, and, contrary to expectations, the ordering mechanism cannot be packing.
Free Energy Landscape of Colloidal Clusters in Spherical Confinement.
This work investigates the free energy landscape of hard sphere-like colloidal clusters as a function of the number of their constituent building blocks for system sizes up to several thousand particles and finds that minima in the freeEnergy landscape, arising from the presence of filled, concentric shells, are significantly broadened.
Assembly and phase transitions of colloidal crystals
Micrometre-sized colloidal particles can be viewed as large atoms with tailorable size, shape and interactions. These building blocks can assemble into extremely rich structures and phases, in which
Convectively Assembled Monolayers of Colloidal Cubes: Evidence of Optimal Packings.
By controlled solvent evaporation large densely packed monolayers of colloidal cubes are obtained and it is shown that shape details of the cube corners are important for the final packing symmetry, where the frequency of the Λ1-lattice increases with decreasing roundness of the corners, whereas the Frequency of the Λ0- lattice is unaffected.
Assembly of hard spheres in a cylinder: a computational and experimental study.
In this work, colloidal experiments and Monte Carlo simulations examine the equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium assembly of hard spheres within cylinders, finding in simulations that structural crossovers echo the structural changes in the sequence of densest packings.
Observation of liquid glass in suspensions of ellipsoidal colloids
It is shown that, in the liquid glass state, nematic precursors as hitherto unknown structures exist, and this helps to guide applications such as self-assembly of colloidal superstructures and also gives evidence of the importance of shape on the glass transition in general.
Dynamics of colloidal particles formation in processing different precursors-elastically and plastically driven electronic states of atoms in lattice
Metallic colloids are frequently used in industry and provide understanding of science at micro-level to sub-micro-level along with their usage in various technological important applications.
Role of diffusion in crystallization of hard-sphere colloids.
Results of numerical simulations and asymptotic analysis suggest that cessation of long-time particle diffusivity does not suppress crystallization of a metastable liquid-phase hard-sphere colloid.
Self-assembly of core-corona particles confined in a circular box.
The findings show that confined core-corona particles can be a suitable system to engineer particles with highly complex internal structure that may serve as building blocks in hierarchical assembly.


Phase behaviour of concentrated suspensions of nearly hard colloidal spheres
Suspensions of spherical colloidal particles in a liquid show a fascinating variety of phase behaviour which can mimic that of simple atomic liquids and solids. ‘Colloidal fluids’1–4, in which there
Colloidal assembly: the road from particles to colloidal molecules and crystals.
This Review highlights recent experimental and theoretical progress in the assembly of colloids larger than 50 nm.
Topological colloids
These findings lay the groundwork for new applications of colloids and liquid crystals that range from topological memory devices, through new types of self-assembly, to the experimental study of low-dimensional topology.
The Free-Energy Landscape of Clusters of Attractive Hard Spheres
It is found that highly symmetric clusters are strongly suppressed by rotational entropy, whereas the most stable clusters have anharmonic vibrational modes or extra bonds, many of which are subsets of close-packed lattices.
Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing
It is shown quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs, and the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing.
Introdzution. The shapes of colloidal particles are often reasonably compact, so that no diameter greatly exceeds the cube root of the volume of the particle. On the other hand, we know many coiloids
Entropy-driven formation of large icosahedral colloidal clusters by spherical confinement.
It is reported that entropy and spherical confinement suffice for the formation of icosahedral clusters consisting of up to 100,000 particles that are entropically favoured over the bulk face-centred cubic crystal structure.
Melting of Colloidal Crystals
Crystal melting is affected by many factors such as defects, surfaces, dimensionality, lattice structure, and particle interaction, and thus exhibits rich phenomenology. It is usually a first‐order
The physics of the colloidal glass transition.
As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass;
Thermodynamic stability of a smectic phase in a system of hard rods
One of the most remarkable phenomena exhibited by colloidal suspensions of monodisperse rod-like particles is the spontaneous formation of smectic liquid crystals1–5. In these smectic phases, the