Sequential extraction of mature rabbit corneal stroma with NaCl-Tris buffer and acetic acid solubilized only 12% of the total corneal collagen. Pepsin (E:S 1:10,4 degrees C, 48 hr) in 0.4 M acetic acid solubilized 91% to 95% of the total collagen in the residue. Approximately 68% of the solubilized material could be precipitated at 2.5M NaCl and a further 3% to 9% at 3.5M NaCl. The collagenous material precipitating at 2.5M NaCl contained alpha, beta, gamma, and some higher molecular weight components and had a CNBr profile similar to bovine type I skin collagen. It had an hydroxylysine/lysine (OHLys/Lys) ratio of 0.43, similar to that of skin collagen, but unlike skin collagen was 52% glycosyled. Although the 3.5M NaCl precipitate had a CNBr peptide profile similar to that of type I collagen, it contained two additional collagen chains of molecular weight approximately 140,000 and 100,000 daltons, had an OHLys/Lys ratio of 0.62, and was 66% glycosylated. Individual chains were separated from the collagen precipitates by gel electrophoresis,and the additional collagen chains were shown to be carbohydrate rich. These additional collagen chains may be derived from one or more molecular species which are physiologically important in the maintenance of the unique organization of corneal collagen.