Cold winter microenvironments conserve energy and improve overwintering survival and potential fecundity of the goldenrod gall fly , Eurosta solidaginis

@inproceedings{Irwin2003ColdWM,
  title={Cold winter microenvironments conserve energy and improve overwintering survival and potential fecundity of the goldenrod gall fly , Eurosta solidaginis},
  author={Jason T. Irwin and Richard E. Lee},
  year={2003}
}
We studied the influence of two overwintering microenvironments on survival and potential fecundity of goldenrod gall flies, Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch) (Diptera, Tephritidae). These freeze-tolerant larvae overwinter above the snow on standing goldenrod stems (elevated) or below the snow on broken stems (ground-level). When covered by snow, the ground-level larvae were well insulated and thus protected from the lowest temperatures of the winter, but, because they were warmer, they consumed more… CONTINUE READING