Cold tolerance of Littorinidae from southern Africa: intertidal snails are not constrained to freeze tolerance

Abstract

All intertidal gastropods for which cold tolerance strategies have been assessed have been shown to be freeze tolerant. Thus, freeze tolerance is considered an adaptation to the intertidal environment. We investigated the cold tolerance strategies of three species of subtropical and temperate snails (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) to determine whether this group… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00360-004-0451-3

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