Cold sensitivity of recombinant TRPA1 channels

@article{Sawada2007ColdSO,
  title={Cold sensitivity of recombinant TRPA1 channels},
  author={Yosuke Sawada and Hiroshi Hosokawa and Aiko Hori and Kiyoshi Matsumura and Shigeo Kobayashi},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={2007},
  volume={1160},
  pages={39-46}
}
TRPA1 acts as a cold sensor in vitro and in vivo
TLDR
It is concluded that TRPA1 acts as a major sensor for noxious cold, and a specific subset of cold-sensitive trigeminal ganglion neurons that is absent inTRPA1-deficient mice are identified.
Ion channels involved in cold detection in mammals: TRP and non-TRP mechanisms
TLDR
Evidence supporting a role for each of the TRP channels in cold transduction is reviewed, focusing on their biophysical properties, expression pattern, and modulation by pro-inflammatory mediators.
TRPA1 Contributes to Cold Hypersensitivity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents, and cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1−/− mice by subcutaneous administration of aTRPA1 agonist.
The transient receptor potential channel TRPA1: from gene to pathophysiology
TLDR
Based on localization and functional properties, TRPA1 is considered a key player in acute and chronic (neuropathic) pain and inflammation, and its role in the (patho)physiology of nearly all organ systems is anticipated, and will be discussed along with the potential ofTRPA1 as a drug target for the management of various pathological conditions.
Transient Receptor Potential Channel Ankyrin-1 Is Not a Cold Sensor for Autonomic Thermoregulation in Rodents
TLDR
It is concluded that TRPA1 channels do not drive autonomic thermoregulatory responses to cold in rodents.
The transient receptor potential channel TRPA 1 : from gene to pathophysiology
TLDR
Based on localization and functional properties, TRPA1 is considered a key player in acute and chronic (neuropathic) pain and inflammation, and its role in the (patho)physiology of nearly all organ systems is anticipated, and will be discussed along with the potential ofTRPA1 as a drug target for the management of various pathological conditions.
The Contribution of TRPM8 and TRPA1 Channels to Cold Allodynia and Neuropathic Pain
TLDR
The results indicate that injured sensory neurons do not develop abnormal cold sensitivity after chronic constriction injury and that alterations in the expression of TRPM8 and TRPA1 are unlikely to contribute directly to the pathogenesis of cold allodynia in this neuropathic pain model.
Activation of TRPA1 channels by fenamate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
TLDR
It is concluded that fenamate NSAIDs are a novel class of potent and reversible direct agonists of TRPA1, and should provide a structural basis for developing novel ligands that noncovalently interact withTRPA1 channels.
Human TRPA1 is intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive with and without its N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain
TLDR
The purified wasabi receptor (TRP subtype A1) is a cold sensor and hTRPA1 is an intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive ion channel, and it is suggested that conformational changes outside the N-terminal ARD by cold, electrophiles, and nonelectrophiles are important in h TRPA1 channel gating and that targeting chemical interaction sites outside theN-terminAL ARD provides possibilities to fine tune TRP1-based drug therapies.
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References

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Distinct expression of TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1 mRNAs in rat primary afferent neurons with aδ/c‐fibers and colocalization with trk receptors
TLDR
Heterogeneity of TRPM8 and TRPA1 expression by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons, which may result in the difference of cold‐sensitive primary afferential neurons in sensitivity to chemicals such as menthol and capsaicin and nerve growth factor, is suggested.
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate Activates and Sensitizes the Heat-Gated Ion Channel TRPV3
TLDR
It is demonstrated that 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a compound used to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ channels and IP3 receptors, produces robust activation of recombinant TRPV3 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells with an EC50 of 28 μm, and is identified as the first known chemical activator of TRpV3.
Nociceptor and Hair Cell Transducer Properties of TRPA1, a Channel for Pain and Hearing
TLDR
This property provides a mechanism for the lack of desensitization, coincidence detection, and allodynia that characterize pain by allowing a sensory neuron to respond constantly to sustained stimulation that is suprathreshold and yet permitting the same cell to ignore sustained stimulating that is subthreshold (i.e., innocuous).
Transient Receptor Potential Channel A1 Is Directly Gated by Calcium Ions*
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, in addition to pungent natural compounds, Ca2+ directly gates heterologously expressed TRPA1 in whole-cell and excised-patch recordings with an apparent EC50 of 905 nm.
Ionic Basis of Cold Receptors Acting as Thermostats
TLDR
It is proposed that cold receptors at distal ends of cold fibers are thermostats to regulate skin T against cold, and it is concluded that the same cold receptors exist at nerve endings and generate afferent impulses for cold sensation and heat-gain behaviors in response to cold.
Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation
TLDR
These findings, together with the previous identification of the heat-sensitive channels VR1 and VRL-1, demonstrate that TRP channels detect temperatures over a wide range and are the principal sensors of thermal stimuli in the mammalian peripheral nervous system.
Camphor Activates and Strongly Desensitizes the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype 1 Channel in a Vanilloid-Independent Mechanism
TLDR
It is found that, although camphor activates TRPV1 less effectively, camphor application desensitized TRPv1 more rapidly and completely than capsaicin, which is inconsistent with the analgesic role of camphor.
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