Cold hardiness, supercooling ability and causes of low-temperature mortality in the soft tick, Argas reflexus, and the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodoidea) from Central Europe.

Seasonal supercooling points (SCPs=temperature of crystallization) and cold hardiness were investigated in the indigenous hard tick, I. ricinus, and in A. reflexus, a soft tick introduced to Central Europe from the South. Both species proved to be freeze-susceptible as well as highly susceptible to inoculative freezing. None of the postembryonic… CONTINUE READING