Angiotensin II stimulates sympathetic neurotransmission to adipose tissue
The effect of cold exposure on the systemic renin-angiotensin system and on regulation of the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor was examined in target organs for Ang II with cardiovascular relevance (left ventricle, kidney, lung) and metabolic relevance [interscapular brown adipose tissue (ISBAT), liver] to the functional consequences of cold exposure. In time course studies, the effects were examined of 4 hr or 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure to cold (4 degrees C) on plasma Ang II concentration and Ang II receptor binding characteristics in rat liver. Plasma Ang II concentration increased 10-fold after 4 hr of cold exposure, returned to control levels at days 1 and 3 of cold exposure, and was again increased (2-fold) at 7 days of cold exposure. The affinity of [125I]Sar1, Ile8-Ang II binding in membranes prepared from rat liver was not altered in cold-exposed rats. The density (Bmax) of binding sites in liver from cold-exposed rats was increased by day 1 and remained elevated over time-matched controls. Alterations in Ang II receptor density did not parallel plasma Ang II concentration in their time course, suggesting that cold-induced regulation of the Ang II receptor was not substrate mediated. In rats from the 7-day time point of cold exposure, Ang II receptor binding characteristics were examined in ISBAT and lung. Increases in Ang II receptor density were evident in ISBAT but not lung. To determine whether cold-induced increases in food intake contributed to elevations in plasma Ang II concentration and/or Ang II receptor density, a group of cold-exposed rats (7 days) were pair-fed to food intake levels of control rats. Pair-feeding of cold-exposed rats eliminated increases in plasma Ang II and norepinephrine concentration but did not prevent increases in Ang II receptor density in liver, ISBAT, kidney and left ventricle. Moreover, increases in Ang II receptor density were augmented in kidney and left ventricle from cold-exposed rats that were pair-fed. Results from these studies demonstrate that cold exposure resulted in an increase in plasma Ang II concentration through mechanisms related to increased food intake. Elevations in food intake in cold-exposed rats contributed to tissue-specific increases in Ang II receptor density. Moreover, cold-induced increases in Ang II receptor density were not related to plasma Ang II concentration.