Cola‐induced hypokalaemia: pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications

@article{Tsimihodimos2009ColainducedHP,
  title={Cola‐induced hypokalaemia: pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications},
  author={Vasilis Tsimihodimos and V. Kakaidi and Moses S. Elisaf},
  journal={International Journal of Clinical Practice},
  year={2009},
  volume={63}
}
Background/Aims: The consumption of soft drinks has increased considerably during the last decades. Among them, the cola‐based preparations are possibly the refreshments with the largest sales worldwide. In addition to the possible detrimental effects of moderate, chronic cola consumption, it has been proposed that the consumption of large amounts of cola‐based soft drinks may result in severe hypokalaemia. 
Excessive cola-based drink consumption as a criminal for hypokalemia and rhabdomyolysis
TLDR
A 33-year-old man admitted to the emergency department with leg pain had been consuming at least 1 liter of cola per day for several months, presenting a case of hypokalaemic myopathy induced by chronic cola-based drink consuming.
Cola Beverages: Clinical Uses versus Adverse Effects
TLDR
A systematic review of new indications for cola beverages in clinical practice like resolution of gastrointestinal or feeding tube obstructions, increasing bioavailability and palatability of other medications, rehydration and other uses in healthcare settings to explore these new uses for practitioners and reemphasize on the most evidence-based complications.
Cola soft drinks and hypokalaemia
TLDR
Even if the ingestion of ‘average’ quantities of cola soft drinks may not result in electrolyte abnormalities, it has been recognised that soft drink intake is associated with increased energy intake, obesity and an increased risk for several medical problems such as diabetes mellitus, and recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are required.
Colas and extreme consumers
  • C. Berry
  • Medicine
    International journal of clinical practice
  • 2009
TLDR
A number of mechanisms by which high levels of consumption of non-alcoholic beverages may be harmful are described and it is worth examining some of these in more detail.
Energy Drinks Induce Acute Cardiovascular and Metabolic Changes Pointing to Potential Risks for Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
TLDR
A single high-volume intake of ED caused adverse changes in BP, QTc, and insulin sensitivity in young, healthy individuals, and these effects cannot be easily attributed to the single components caffeine, taurine, or glucuronolactone.
Toxic Level of Soft Drinks and Sports Drink on Health Status
TLDR
This study established the toxic level of soft and sport drinks and will be helpful to aware the public about the hazardous effect of these drinks.
EFFECT OF FIZZY AND ENERGY DRINKS ON PUBLIC HEALTH: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
TLDR
It is concluded that people drink fizzy/energy drinks as a status symbol influenced by media and their friends and they would quit drinking them if asked by their physicians.
Diabetes is a Complex Neurological, Multisystemic, Multipathological and Polygenomic Disorder: the Use of Strannik Software as an Effective Modality to Illustrate Its Complexity
TLDR
It is illustrated that under pathological conditions mainly in the pancreas, but also as a result of pathological onset in adjacent organs and systems, there is an imbalance between insulin expression and insulin reactivity which leads to increased or decreased blood glucose levels, elevated blood viscosity, the onset of free radical reactions, the subsequent production of complex glycated proteins/lipids and metabolites.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
Excessive cola consumption as a cause of hypokalaemic myopathy
TLDR
A case of chronic caffeine toxicity manifesting as hypokalaemic myopathy is presented and it is shown that coffee, tea and caffeine-containing drugs, with their relatively high caffeine content, are more likely to produce chronic toxicity when consumed in excess.
Chronic hypokalemia due to excessive cola consumption: a case report
TLDR
Doctors should ask patients about soft drink consumption when they encounter unexplained hypokalemia, because fructose absorption in the small bowel is relatively inefficient, this probably led to an osmotic diarrhea and GI potassium wasting.
Hypokalemic nephropathy and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to excessive consumption of a soft drink.
TLDR
An adult patient who had severe hypokalemia from chronic osmotic diarrhea as a result of drinking 4 to 6 liters of Big Red daily for several months resulted in sustained hypokAlemia, complicated by hypokALemic nephropathy and subsequent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Colas , but not other carbonated beverages , are associated with low bone mineral density in older women : The Framingham Osteoporosis Study
TLDR
While the authors did not detect any pathological esophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding.
Caffeine and hypokalemia.
TLDR
This data indicates that a significant decrease in the serum potassium concentration at therapeutic levels of theophylline (1,3-dimethylxa) is associated with lowered serum potassium levels in patients with high plasma potassium levels.
Hypokalemia with syncope caused by habitual drinking of oolong tea.
TLDR
It is suggested that great quantities of oolong tea, one of the so-called "healthy" drinks, result in serious symptoms for patients with hypoalbuminemia.
The pharmacology of caffeine.
  • M. Arnaud
  • Medicine
    Progress in drug research. Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung. Progres des recherches pharmaceutiques
  • 1987
TLDR
The pharmaceutical properties of caffeine described in this report explain its use in drugs used as stimulants, pain relievers, diuretics, cold remedies, weight control products, bronchial and cardiac stimulants as well as in drugs for the treatment of acne and other skin disorders.
Hypokalemia in a pregnant woman with long‐term heavy cola consumption
  • K. Matsunami, A. Imai, T. Tamaya
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 1994
Clinical pharmacology of caffeine.
  • N. Benowitz
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annual review of medicine
  • 1990
TLDR
This chapter reviews the human pharmacology of caffeine; the evidence for its role in causing human disease, including addiction; and its potential usefulness as a therapeutic agent.
...
1
2
3
...