Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.

  title={Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.},
  author={John D. E. Gabrieli},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  • J. Gabrieli
  • Published 1998
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Annual review of psychology
Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is reviewed about the specific roles of hippocampal and parahippocampal… 

Images of Medial Temporal Lobe Functions in Human Learning and Memory

Three functional imaging studies that reveal different patterns of MTL activation associated with declarative and procedural memory tasks are reviewed, revealing suppression of the MTL during striatum-dependent cognitive skill learning.

Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies

It is concluded that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal, however, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.

Temporal lobe epilepsy as a model to understand human memory: The distinction between explicit and implicit memory

Overlap in the Functional Neural Systems Involved in Semantic and Episodic Memory Retrieval

A network analysis using multivariate partial least squares (PLS) activation analysis followed by covariance structural equation modeling (SEM) of positron emission tomography data obtained while healthy adults performed episodic and semantic verbal retrieval tasks found that the same memory network/system was engaged across tasks, given the similarities in path coefficients.

Interactive memory systems in the human brain

Examination of classification learning using event-related FMRI showed rapid modulation of activity in these regions at the beginning of learning, suggesting that subjects relied upon the medial temporal lobe early in learning, but this dependence rapidly declined with training, as predicted by previous computational models of associative learning.

Age-related decline in working memory and episodic memory: contributions of the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobes

Functional neuroimaging studies indicate important roles for medial temporal and prefrontal regions in age-related decline in working memory and episodic memory and Interestingly, their findings also indicate that aging is not exclusively associated with decline.

The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson’s disease

Brain imaging of human memory systems: between-systems similarities and within-system differences.




Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory

The results provide clear evidence that episodic memory involves a network of specific prefrontal and posterior structures which can be fractionated into different component processes.

Hippocampal abnormalities in amnesic patients revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

A high-resolution protocol for imaging the human hippocampus with magnetic resonance is developed that permits visualization of the hippocampal formation in substantial cytoarchitectonic detail, revealing abnormalities in patients with severe and selective memory impairment.

Memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal system

A cognitive neuroscience theory of memory is offered that accounts for the nature of memory impairment exhibited in human amnesia and animal models of amnesia, that specifies the functional role played by the hippocampal system in memory, and that provides further understanding of the componential structure of memory.

Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to examine brain activation in human subjects during performance of a working memory task and to show that prefrontal cortex along with parietal cortex appears to play a role in active maintenance.

Memory systems analyses of mnemonic disorders in aging and age-related diseases.

  • J. Gabrieli
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
Study of intact and impaired memory in age-related diseases suggest that normal aging has markedly different effects upon different memory systems, specifically neural networks that mediate specific mnemonic processes.

The hippocampal formation participates in novel picture encoding: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  • C. SternS. Corkin B. Rosen
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
To the knowledge, this experiment is the first fMRI study to show robust signal changes in the human hippocampal region and provides evidence that the encoding of novel, complex pictures depends upon an interaction between ventral cortical regions, specialized for object vision, and the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus, specialty for long-term memory.

Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.

It is proposed that memory processes are subserved by a wide neurocognitive network and that encoding processes involve preferential activation of the structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex.

Face encoding and recognition in the human brain.

A dissociation between human neural systems that participate in the encoding and later recognition of new memories for faces was demonstrated by measuring memory task-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography, and the most striking finding in neocortex was the lateralization of prefrontal participation.

Double Dissociation Between Memory Systems Underlying Explicit and Implicit Memory in the Human Brain

A patient who has a lesion in the right occipital lobe and who showed intact explicit and impaired implicit memory for words is presented and indicates that separate processing systems mediate these two forms of memory, and that a memory system in right Occipital cortex mediates implicit visual memory for Words.

Different Memory Systems Underlying Acquisition of Procedural and Declarative Knowledge a

It is shown that amnesic patients with marked disorders of learning and memory demonstrate a striking dissociation between the memory processes or memory systems that support the acquisition of cognitive skills and the processes or systems that mediate the Acquisition of new facts or other data-based knowledge.