Cognitive impairment in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity: review of literature on the main cognitive impairments, the imaging and the effect of gluten free diet

@article{Makhlouf2017CognitiveII,
  title={Cognitive impairment in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity: review of literature on the main cognitive impairments, the imaging and the effect of gluten free diet},
  author={Sinda Makhlouf and Mariem Messelmani and Jamel Zaouali and Ridha Mrissa},
  journal={Acta Neurologica Belgica},
  year={2017},
  volume={118},
  pages={21-27}
}
Celiac disease (CD) and non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be responsible for neurological complications such as ataxia and peripheral neuropathies but also cognitive impairment. This cognitive involvement is variable in its expression, its duration and its prognosis ranging from transient and reversible subtle involvement to dementia itself. Through this article, we tried to achieve a review of the literature to better understand this topic. Several mechanisms were proposed to explain… 
Cognitive Impairment and Celiac Disease: Is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation a Trait d’Union between Gut and Brain?
TLDR
Given its potential neuroprotective effect, the gluten-free diet should be introduced as early as possible, although the overall response of neurological symptoms (and cognition in particular) is still controversial.
Neurological Manifestations of Celiac Disease and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and the Effect of a Gluten Free Diet
TLDR
This study seeks to review the evidence regarding the neurological manifestations of CeD, the effect of a gluten-free diet, and highlight studies investigating NCGS/NCWS as a distinct entity from CeD.
Treatment of Neurological Manifestations of Gluten Sensitivity and Coeliac Disease
TLDR
Strict gluten-free diet is an effective first-line treatment of the neurological manifestations of gluten-related disorders and very few patients will require additional immunosuppressive treatment usually in the form of mycophenolate.
Extra-Intestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease: What Should We Know in 2022?
TLDR
In this review, the main extra-intestinal manifestations of CD are analyzed which include cutaneous and endocrinological disorders, abnormal liver function tests, and neuropsychiatric features.
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms respond to gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease
TLDR
Prior to treatment, coeliac disease patients reported significantly more symptoms than healthy controls on ASRS and HADS, and the differences disappeared after a minimum of 12 months on a gluten-free diet.
Acrodystrophic axonal polyneuropathy with celiac disease: a case report
TLDR
A 41-year-old Ukrainian male suffered from symmetric, sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy and encephalopathy associated with celiac disease, which is characterized by severe trophic disorders in the lower extremities (trophic ulcers, hyperkeratosis, and anhidrosis).
“Let Food Be Thy Medicine”: Gluten and Potential Role in Neurodegeneration
TLDR
Gluten induced dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeabillity, enteric and systemic side effects, cross-reactive antibodies, and the sequence of homologies between brain antigens and gluten are highlighted, alluding to some autoimmune aspects between gluten and neurodegenerative disease.
Nonresponsive Celiac Disease Treated with a Unique Functional Medical Approach
TLDR
This is the first published case of complete reversal of NRCD and failure to thrive by addressing endotoxin and lifestyle outside of a GFD, and after initiating and maintaining these dietary and lifestyle changes, he gained 12 inches and 40 pounds.
Review article: Systemic consequences of coeliac disease
The best‐known symptoms of coeliac disease are related to the gastrointestinal tract, but the disease may also present with various systemic manifestations outside the intestine. Some of these
Wheat Consumption Aggravates Colitis in Mice via Amylase Trypsin Inhibitor-mediated Dysbiosis.
TLDR
Consumption of wheat or wheat-ATIs increases intestinal inflammation in mice with colitis, via TLR4, and alters their fecal microbiota, and Wheat-based, ATI-containing diets therefore activateTLR4 signaling and promote intestinal dysbiosis.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES
Neurological Dysfunction in Coeliac Disease and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity
TLDR
The neurological manifestations of CD and NCGS are similar and equally responsive to a GFD suggestive of common pathophysiological mechanisms.
Cognitive impairment and celiac disease.
TLDR
A possible association exists between progressive cognitive impairment and Celiac disease, given the temporal relationship and the relatively high frequency of ataxia and peripheral neuropathy, more commonly associated with celiac disease.
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders
TLDR
The major advances and current trends on Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity are reported, including an overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria.
Risk of dementia in patients with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study.
TLDR
Patients with celiac disease are not at increased risk for dementia overall, though subgroup analysis suggests that they may be at increasedrisk for vascular dementia.
Cognitive performance is impaired in coeliac patients on gluten free diet: a case-control study in patients older than 65 years of age.
  • S. CasellaB. Zanini A. Lanzini
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • 2012
Neuropsychological alterations in hepatitis C infection: the role of inflammation.
TLDR
The present review outlines the available evidence of the presence of cognitive impairment in patients with HCV infection, with a focus on the potential relationship with cerebral and/or systemic inflammation.
The neurologic significance of celiac disease biomarkers
TLDR
The data support causes alternative to gluten exposure for neurologic dysfunction among most gliadin antibody–positive patients without CD, and Nutritional deficiency and coexisting autoimmunity may cause Neurologic dysfunction in CD.
Sporadic cerebellar ataxia associated with gluten sensitivity.
TLDR
The fact that the disease is strongly associated with the same HLA haplotypes found in coeliac disease not only demonstrates coeliasis disease and ataxia with gluten sensitivity to be part of the same disease entity but supports the hypothesis of an immunological pathogenesis of cerebellar degeneration.
Depressive symptoms in adult coeliac disease.
TLDR
Depressive symptoms are a feature of CD; they are present to a similar extent in patients with childhood- and adulthood-diagnosed CD and the results underline the relevance of personal psychologic resources, which play a fundamental role in determining and sustaining depression.
The spectrum of noncoeliac gluten sensitivity
TLDR
The characteristic phenotype of individuals with NCGS is described as well as the symptom manifestations commonly reported after gluten exposure, which include intestinal symptoms consistent with IBS, and extraintestinal symptoms such as neurological dysfunction, psychological disturbances, fibromyalgia and skin rash.
...
...