Cognitive function in untreated hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

  title={Cognitive function in untreated hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism},
  author={Mary H Samuels},
  journal={Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity},
  • M. Samuels
  • Published 1 October 2008
  • Medicine, Biology, Psychology
  • Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Purpose of reviewThe brain is an important target organ for thyroid hormone, and alterations in mood and cognition may occur with thyroid dysfunction. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neurosciences have allowed more sensitive and focused testing of cognitive domains in patients with altered thyroid function. Recent findingsBased on recent population-based studies, there do not appear to be major deficits in cognitive functioning in overt or subclinical thyroid disease. However… 
Thyroid disease and cognition.
  • M. Samuels
  • Medicine, Biology
    Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • 2014
Neurocognition and hypothyroidism: Critical points
The present editorial shall focus on neurocognitive aspects of hypothyroidism that are seen in adults and the diagnostic and confounding factors that surround the same.
Is thyroid status associated with cognitive impairment in elderly patients in China?
Assessment of thyroid status using thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels as variables found no association was evident between mild cognitive impairment or AD and thyroid dysfunction, but lower serum TSH was correlated with risk of AD.
Minimal changes of thyroid axis activity influence brain functions in young females affected by subclinical hypothyroidism.
This study indicates that minimal changes in TH levels produce subtle but well-defined mental changes, thus encouraging further studies for the prediction of pathology evolution.
The Challenges and Complexities of Thyroid Hormone Replacement
The current literature comparing cognitive improvement in combination T3/T4 therapies to T4 monotherapy in the context of the most recent biological research on thyroid metabolism and signaling in neurons is discussed to help explain the conflicting cognitive results in these studies and help develop new paradigms to test in the future.
Thyroid Hormones, Brain, and Heart
Evaluation of possible association between genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in thyroid hormone transport and metabolism with patient-centered health status could help to more accurately identify high-risk CVD patients and provide with personalized treatment approaches.
Thyroid Hormone Replacement
Neurologic Complications of Nondiabetic Endocrine Disorders
Endocrine disorders can cause various neurologic complications, from insidious myopathy to acute encephalopathy, and diagnosing the endocrine disorder as the cause of the neurologic impairment is essential, as treating the underlying hormonal dysfunction will often rapidly reverse the Neurologic symptoms.
Post-treatment cognitive dysfunction in women treated with thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma
Findings suggest that women receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer are at risk for attention and working memory problems and should be assessed for cognitive problems in women with thyroid cancer.


Neuropsychiatric aspects of hypothyroidism and treatment reversibility. .
Control studies suggest that cognitive and mood symptoms improve with treatment, though the data are equivocal and limited by diverse methodologies, and Limitations of the current literature and future directions are discussed.
Is Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction in the Elderly Associated with Depression or Cognitive Dysfunction?
This study provides good evidence that subclinical thyroid dysfunction is not related to disorders of cognition and mood in older persons, and examines possible associations in a large community-based cohort of persons 65 years of age or older (the Birmingham Elderly Thyroid Study).
Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment.
In subjects with SHT where the serum TSH level is in the 3.5-10.0 mIU/liter range, there are no neuropsychological dysfunction, and compared with healthy controls, there is no difference in symptoms related to hypothyroidism.
It is suggested that specific memory retrieval deficits associated with hypothyroidism can resolve after replacement therapy with levothyroxine.
Thyroid hormones, dementia, and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe.
In this study, TSH was related neither to risk of AD nor with early MRI markers thereof, arguing against an important role of thyroid function in the development of AD.
fMRI revealed neural substrate for reversible working memory dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism.
It is suggested that working memory (but not other memory functions) is impaired in SCH patients, mainly as far as disorders of the frontoparietal network were concerned.
Verbal memory retrieval deficits associated with untreated hypothyroidism.
Results suggest that hypothyroid-related memory deficits are not attributable to an attentional deficit but rather to specific retrieval deficits.
Thyroid status, disability and cognitive function, and survival in old age.
In the general population of the oldest old, elderly individuals with abnormally high levels of thyrotropin do not experience adverse effects and may have a prolonged life span, however, evidence for not treating elderly individuals can only come from a well-designed, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.
It is suggested that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function in hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion.
Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism.
There were independent decrements in working memory, which suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism specifically impacts brain areas responsible for working memory.