Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors.

@article{Froestl2012CognitiveE,
  title={Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors.},
  author={W. Froestl and A. Muhs and A. Pfeifer},
  journal={Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD},
  year={2012},
  volume={32 4},
  pages={
          793-887
        }
}
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed… Expand
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes.
TLDR
This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years and proposes assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism of action. Expand
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. disease-modifying drugs.
TLDR
The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years and proposes assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action. Expand
Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.
TLDR
In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified and enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. Expand
Neurotransmitters and Memory
TLDR
Molecular signaling is key field of scientific investigation; particularly, as the study of the molecular bases of memory has been become a field of the major scientific interest, hence, in the following lines some aspects are mentioned. Expand
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes. Update 2014.
TLDR
The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through April 2014 and describes drugs interacting with 60 enzymes versus 43 enzymes in the first paper. Expand
Nootropics: Phytochemicals with Neuroprotective and Neurocognitive Enhancing Properties
TLDR
Nootropics open the door for new research, clinical implementation and promotion of integrative health especially in cognitive neuroscience by implementing products of natural sources to improve neurocognitive functioning and health improvement. Expand
Serotonin Type 6 and 7 Receptors as a Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Schizophrenia
TLDR
Research on novel drugs that act on serotonin 6 and 7 receptors likely facilitates the intervention into schizophrenia patients seeking better quality of life in the future. Expand
Innovative mechanisms of action for pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement: A systematic review
TLDR
A number of new active drugs were found to improve some cognitive functions, in particular verbal episodic memory, however the number of RCTs was limited, and most of the studies found negative results. Expand
Is Methylphenidate Beneficial and Safe in Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement?
TLDR
Methylphenidate appears to produce dose-dependent benefits to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but the evidence for benefit in Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia is inconclusive. Expand
A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System
TLDR
The effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104) is examined to propose a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 1,721 REFERENCES
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes.
TLDR
This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years and proposes assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism of action. Expand
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. disease-modifying drugs.
TLDR
The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years and proposes assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action. Expand
Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. Update 2014.
TLDR
The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through March 2014, and describes drugs interacting with 42 receptors versus 32 receptors in the first paper. Expand
Mechanisms of action of cognitive enhancers on neuroreceptors.
TLDR
These three drugs potentiate the activity not only of the cholinergic system but also of the NMDA system, thereby stimulating the downregulated nACh receptors and NMDA receptors to improve patients' learning, cognition, and memory. Expand
Targeting the nicotinic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor to enhance cognition in disease.
TLDR
Positive allosteric modulation of the α7nAChR offers an alternate approach to direct agonism that could prove to be particularly beneficial in certain disease populations where smoking nicotine is prevalent and could interfere with an orthosteric agonist approach. Expand
Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs.
TLDR
Reasons for the problems encountered by nootropics, compounds therapeutically available and those in development, their structure activity relationships and mechanisms of action are discussed and the class is examined in more detail. Expand
Metabotropic glutamate receptors as therapeutic targets for cognitive disorders.
Since more than one decade, metabotropic glutamate receptors have been under investigation as targets for various CNS disorders such as anxiety, pain, depression, schizpohrenia, Alzheimer's diseaseExpand
Putative cognitive enhancers in preclinical models related to schizophrenia: The search for an elusive target
TLDR
It is concluded that most of the available models have no capacity to distinguish between PCEs and APDs and that there is a need to establish models based on tasks whose perturbations lead to performance impairments that are resistant to APDs, and/or to accept APDs as a "weak gold standard". Expand
Serotonin1A receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: development of novel cognition-enhancing therapeutics
TLDR
Findings on the role of 5-HT receptors in endophenotypic variations in schizophrenia and the development of newer cognition-enhancing medications are provided, based on basic science and clinical evidence. Expand
5-HT6 receptor antagonists as novel cognitive enhancing agents for Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
It is increasingly clear that blockade of 5-HT6 receptors leads to an improvement of cognitive performance in a wide variety of learning and memory paradigms and also results in anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activity. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...