Cognitive consequences of forced compliance.

  title={Cognitive consequences of forced compliance.},
  author={Leon Festinger and J. Merrill Carlsmith},
  journal={Journal of abnormal psychology},
  volume={58 2},
WHAT happens to a person's private opinion if he is forced to do or say something contrary to that opinion? Only recently has there been, any experimental work related to this question. Two studies reported by Janis and King (1954; 1956) clearly showed that, at least under some conditions, the private opinion changes so as to bring it into closer correspondence with the overt behavior the person was forced to perform. Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech… Expand

Tables from this paper

On the relationship between speech acts and psychological states
This paper defends a theory of speech act that I call concurrentism. It receives support from a psychological study and goes well with evolutionary theory. It sheds light on what the hearer believesExpand
INTRODUCTION:Cognitive Dissonance is a psychological discomfort that occurs when a discrepancy exists between what a person believes and the information that contradicts that belief. Festinger (1957)Expand
What is cognitive consistency, and why does it matter?
In the spring 2015, the first author of this chapter attended a small group conference where he had the opportunity to chat with one of the most distinguished senior researchers in the area ofExpand
Compliance, Justification, and Cognitive Change1
Publisher Summary The chapter presents research and theoretical formulation that grew out of a controversy over the theory of compliance, justification, and cognitive change. The dissonance theoryExpand
Justice and the awareness of social entities
Justice is, for the most part, what we think it is. Although thinking may seem to take a back seat to emotion in the turmoil of reactions to injustice, or to simple habit in the everyday enactment ofExpand
Attitude bolstering when behavior is inconsistent with central attitudes
Abstract An experiment was conducted to study the effects of behaving inconsistently with a central attitude. In a theoretical account, it is suggested that subjects who score high on a feminismExpand
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Collective Actions and Individual Reactions
The basic premise of Festinger’s (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance is that an individual strives to maintain consistency or consonance among his or her cognitions. Inconsistent, or dissonant,Expand
Social identity: Cognitive dissonance or paradox?
Abstract Cognitive dissonance is considered as emerging between the social identity of persons and that of their acts. An analysis is made of the paradoxical consequences of a double bind: Those whoExpand
Mistreatment of an esteemed other as a consequence affecting dissonance reduction
Abstract Recent research has shown that aversive behavioral consequences affect the magnitude of dissonance reduction. The present experiment was conducted to help clarify the meaning of an aversiveExpand
Social Influence and Conform ity —
man has informed us that we are becoming excessively other-directed,2) while William H. Whyte, Jr. tells us in no uncertain terms that our Protestant Ethic is being replaced by a Social Ethic, as heExpand


The influence of role playing on opinion change.
The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of one type of demand that is frequently made upon a person when he is induced to play a social role, namely, the requirement that he overtly verbalize to others various opinions which may not correspond to his inner convictions. Expand
A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance theory links actions and attitudes. It holds that dissonance is experienced whenever one cognition that a person holds follows from the opposite of at least one other cognitionExpand
A theory of cognitive d-issonattce
  • A theory of cognitive d-issonattce