Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety.

  title={Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety.},
  author={Colin MacLeod and Andrew M. Mathews},
  journal={Annual review of clinical psychology},
Clinical anxiety disorders and elevated levels of anxiety vulnerability are characterized by cognitive biases, and this processing selectivity has been implicated in theoretical accounts of these conditions. We review research that has sought to evaluate the causal contributions such biases make to anxiety dysfunction and to therapeutically alleviate anxiety using cognitive-bias modification (CBM) procedures. After considering the purpose and nature of CBM methodologies, we show that variants… 

Cognitive bias modification procedures in the management of mental disorders

  • C. MacLeod
  • Psychology
    Current opinion in psychiatry
  • 2012
There is a pressing need for large-scale randomized controlled trials, to compare the efficacy of CBM with that of alternative approaches, and to identify how CBM can most effectively be integrated into multimodal treatment programs.

Cognitive Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: The Differential Impact of Modifying Attentional and/or Interpretation Bias

Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) refers to the modification of cognitive biases, such as selectively attending to threatening information or interpreting information in a threatening way. CBM for

The Cognitive and Emotional Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification in Interpretations in Behaviorally Inhibited Youth

Cognitive bias modification (CBM) procedures follow from the view that interpretive biases play an important role in the development and maintenance of anxiety. As such, understanding the link

The Attentional Bias Modification Approach to Anxiety Intervention

Anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction are characterized by an attentional bias to threat. Cognitive training procedures designed to modify selective attentional responding to threat originally were

Cognitive Bias Modification in Mental

Cognitive biases refer to a tendency to favor a particular way of processing information, such as habitually attending to threatening information in the environment, or interpreting ambiguous

Attention Bias Modification for Anxiety and Phobias: Current Status and Future Directions

It is suggested that ABM appears to be a promising treatment for anxiety disorders, but relative to other interventions, ABM is in its infancy and research is needed in order to improve ABM as a clinical treatment and advance the psychological science of ABM.

Cognitive Bias Modification in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Cognitive behavioral therapy, consisting of exposure and response prevention and cognitive restructring, is still one of the most effective treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder. However, some

Change Processes During Cognitive Bias Modification for Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs

Multiple studies have found that cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be an effective intervention to reduce maladaptive, anxiety-linked cognitive biases and symptoms, but little is known about how

Mapping Dynamic Interactions Among Cognitive Biases in Depression

Depression is theorized to be caused in part by biased cognitive processing of emotional information. Yet, prior research has adopted a reductionist approach that does not characterize how biases in



Cognitive bias modification for anxiety: current evidence and future directions

  • C. Beard
  • Psychology
    Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • 2011
The theoretical rationale for CBM, the current evidence from analogue and clinical samples, and a number of important limitations of the existing data need to be addressed before making firm conclusions regarding CBM’s efficacy for anxiety disorders are addressed.

Cognitive vulnerability to anxiety: A review and an integrative model.

A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression.

The small effect sizes observed here suggest that this effect of CBM on cognitive biases and on anxiety and depression may be more modest than previously believed.

Changing attentional bias: Can it effect self-reported anxiety?

Abstract Studies conducted over the last decade have demonstrated the occurrence of attentional biases towards anxiety-relevant verbal information in people with anxiety disorders and those with high

Effects of positive interpretive bias modification in highly anxious individuals.

Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders.

It is indicated that biases in attention, memory, and interpretation, as well as repetitive negative thoughts, are common across emotional disorders, although they vary in form according to type of disorder.

Modifying interpretations among individuals high in anxiety sensitivity.

The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders

The evidence that attentional bias can be modified using both pharmacological and psychological interventions is reviewed and a conceptual framework that embraces both pharmacology and psychological approaches is suggested.

The reduction of anxiety vulnerability through the modification of attentional bias: a real-world study using a home-based cognitive bias modification procedure.

The attentional bias modification procedure was effective in inducing attentional avoidance of negative information and served to reduce trait anxiety scores and to attenuate state anxiety responses to the subsequent naturalistic stressor, supporting the hypotheses that biased attentional responding to emotionally negative information contributes causally to real-world anxiety vulnerability.