Cognitive behaviour in Asian elephants: use and modification of branches for fly switching

  title={Cognitive behaviour in Asian elephants: use and modification of branches for fly switching},
  author={Benjamin L Hart and Lynette A Hart (Geyer) and Michael C. McCoy and C. R. Sarath},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
Asian elephants, Elephus maximus, have the greatest volume of cerebral cortex available for cognitive processing of all extant terrestrial animal species. A manifestation of cognitive behaviour is tool use and tool manufacture. Fly switching with branches is a type of tool use previously shown in captive Asian elephants to be effective in repelling flies and to vary in frequency with the intensity of flies. In the first part of the present study we report on observations of one juvenile and 33… 
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It is concluded that strong mutual tolerance was a key factor in the explosive increase in technology among hominids, probably intricately tied to a lifestyle involving food sharing and tool-based processing or the acquisition of large, shareable food packages.
Review : Evolution of the Motor System: Why the Elephant's Trunk Works Like a Human's Hand
It is suggested that well-developed mesodiencephalo olivo-cerebellar projections may be an important factor for the differentiation of the large neocortex of the human, primate, elephant, and whale during evolutionary progress.
Evolution of longevity in ungulates and carnivores.
Findings for primate species suggest that evolution of longer lifespan, increased metabolic efficiency and increased extra-brain functions represent major characteristics describing the evolutionary success of the mammalian species.
Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence
The evidence of the actual evolution of the vertebrate brain is analyzed by reviewing morphological data on endocasts and skeletons of several hundred fossil species and comparing these with living
Animal intelligence as encephalization.
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  • Psychology, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1985
There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The
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