Cognitive Tutors: Lessons Learned

  title={Cognitive Tutors: Lessons Learned},
  author={John R. Anderson and Albert T. Corbett and K. Koedinger and Ray Pelletier},
  journal={The Journal of the Learning Sciences},
This article reviews the 10-year history of tutor development based on the advanced computer tutoring (ACT) theory (J. R. Anderson, 1983, 1993). We developed production system models in ACT of how students solved problems in LISP, geometry, and algebra. Computer tutors were developed around these cognitive models. Construction of these tutors was guided by a set of eight principles loosely based on the ACT theory. Early evaluations of these tutors usually, but not always, showed significant… 

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