Cognitive Reserve and Alzheimer Disease

  title={Cognitive Reserve and Alzheimer Disease},
  author={Yaakov Stern},
  journal={Alzheimer Disease \& Associated Disorders},
  • Y. Stern
  • Published 1 April 2006
  • Psychology
  • Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that individuals with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) posits that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide differential reserve against brain pathology or age-related changes. This may take 2 forms. In neural reserve, preexisting brain networks that are more efficient or have greater capacity may be… 
Cognitive reserve in aging.
Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of
Educational attainment and hippocampal atrophy in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative cohort.
Cognitive Reserve and Its Implications in Cognitive and Behavioral Testing
The cognitive reserve hypothesis proposes that people with similar cognitive impairments or even no impairment at all may nevertheless have rampant Alzheimer pathology, and clinical psychometric testing is unlikely to reliably diagnose many people that may benefit from specific disease therapies.
Neural mechanisms of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease
It is argued that the fronto-parietal control network is relatively stable during the initial stages of AD and may thus be well posited to subserve reserve in AD, given the previous observations of altered DMN connectivity and posterior parietal FDG-PET hypometabolism in AD.
Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease
Investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions, and calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training.
Reserve in mild cognitive impairment – new approaches
It was found that patients with higher reserve were distinguishable from those with intermediate and lower reserve with regards to abeta42 pathology, but not clinical manifestations, and the incongruence between pathology and clinical outcome indicates compensation for neuropathology.
Cognitive Reserve and Alzheimer’s Disease
It is believed that a better knowledge of the relationship between AD and CR, accompanied by a successful transition of research accomplishments into practice, will impart much relief to individuals suffering from AD.
[Cognitive reserve and neuronal changes associated with aging].
The present article describes the neuronal mechanisms proposed to underlie cognitive reserve and the factors that increase and decrease reserve.
Education and Alzheimer disease without dementia
The theory that individuals with greater cognitive reserve, as reflected in years of education, are better able to cope with AD brain pathology without observable deficits in cognition is supported.
Cognitive reserve protects against cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis
This study is the first to investigate whether higher cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between MS and cognitive functioning, and a word-reading proxy of premorbid intelligence was used to estimate cognitive reserve.


Inverse relationship between education and parietotemporal perfusion deficit in Alzheimer's disease
It is concluded that education or its covariates or both may provide a reserve that compensates for the neuropathological changes of AD and delays the onset of its clinical manifestations.
Association of life activities with cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease: implications for the cognitive reserve hypothesis.
At any given level of clinical disease severity, there is a greater degree of brain pathologic involvement in patients with AD who have more engagement in activities, even when education and IQ are taken into account.
Cognitive reserve-mediated modulation of positron emission tomographic activations during memory tasks in Alzheimer disease.
Brain regions where systematic relationships between subjects' education-IQ and brain activation differ as a function of disease status may mediate the differential ability to cope with clinical manifestations of AD.
Evidence from Functional Neuroimaging of a Compensatory Prefrontal Network in Alzheimer's Disease
Neural activity during semantic and episodic memory tasks in mildly demented AD patients and healthy elderly controls provides the most direct evidence to date that AD patients can use additional neural resources in prefrontal cortex to compensate for losses attributable to the degenerative process of the disease.
Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease.
Results suggest that frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities is associated with reduced risk of AD.
Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer’s disease
It is concluded that higher education AD patients experience faster cognitive decline, which was present over and above age, gender, ethnicity, differential baseline cognitive performance, depression, and vascular comorbidity.
The effects of intelligence and education on the development of dementia. A test of the brain reserve hypothesis.
This work indicates that low pre-morbid intelligence is an important risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, and supports the brain reserve theory.
Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia: the role of cognition, functional ability and depression
The results suggest that dementia patients with greater cognitive reserve have increased mortality rates, only if the disease has progressed to such an extent that clinical symptoms are more severe, and the reserve hypothesis needs a modification.
Education and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a democratic process. Physicians and psychologists, chess masters and physicists, mathematicians and musicians may become victims of this disorder. A poignant example that
Relationship between lifetime occupation and parietal flow
After controlling for age, clinical dementia severity, and education, there was less relative perfusion in the parietal region in subjects whose occupations were associated with higher interpersonal skills and physical demands factor scores.