Cognitive Reserve, Age, and Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Participants

  title={Cognitive Reserve, Age, and Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Participants},
  author={Montserrat Corral and Marina Rodr{\'i}guez and Elena Amenedo and Juan Luis S{\'a}nchez and Fernando D{\'i}az},
  journal={Developmental Neuropsychology},
  pages={479 - 491}
The first aim of this study was to explore the relation between cognitive reserve, age, and neuropsychological functioning in a healthy sample; and second, to determine the risk of showing cognitive deficits as a function of cognitive reserve. One hundred forty-six healthy participants between the ages of 20 and 79 were submitted to neuropsychological assessment, focusing on attention, memory, visuo-construction, conceptualization and reasoning. Premorbid IQ as measured with the Wechsler Adult… 
Executive Functioning as a Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Adults
The World Health Organization developed the term aging-associated cognitive decline which is defined as performance on a standardized cognitive test that is at least one standard deviation below age-adjusted norms in at leastOne of any of the following cognitive domains.
Is High IQ Protective Against Cognitive Dysfunction in Narcoleptic Patients?
The findings of the present study show that narcolepsy patients have deficits in visual attention and visual working memory, and tend to feel more general depressive symptoms but not somatic symptoms than their control, nonnarcoleptic counterparts, and it appears that higher intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood.
Demographic and non-memory cognitive predictors of memory test performance in a clinical sample
Objective: While memory tests are designed to measure the ability to store and retrieve information, other non-memory cognitive abilities are required to perform these tasks. Demographic factors also
Higher Level of Cognitive Reserve Reduces the Risk of Cognitive Difficulties in Healthy Adults
The study was designed to investigate whether a level of cognitive reserve (CR) is associated with a level of cognitive competences in adults. Evidence from numerous earlier studies suggests that
Exploring cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis: New findings from a cross-sectional study
The preliminary findings suggest that the CR is an important predictor of better performance on cognitive tests in MS patients, but at this stage of the study, it is unable to confirm the CR hypothesis.
The association between reserve, cognitive ability and performance-related brain activity during episodic encoding and retrieval across the adult lifespan
Abstract Remembering associations between encoded items and their contextual setting is a feature of episodic memory. Although this ability generally deteriorates with age, there is substantial
Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.
Special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.


Influence of cognitive reserve on neuropsychological functioning in Parkinson's disease
Early neuropsychological impairments in PD are most evident in individuals with lower RC, and individuals with greater RC may be less sensitive to the initial clinical effects of the underlying neuropathological process.
Influence of cognitive reserve on neuropsychological functioning in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.
Early neuropsychological impairments in HIV-1 infection are most evident in individuals with lower cognitive reserve, and individuals with greater cognitive reserve may be less sensitive to the initial clinical effects of the underlying neuropathologic process.
Influence of cognitive reserve on neuropsychologic functioning in Alzheimer's disease type sporadic in subjects of Spanish nationality.
The results reveal that patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease who have a high cognitive reserve attain a higher neuropsychologic performance than those with a low reserve, and support the theory on the important protective role of education as well as that of certain occupational aspects in the incidence of cognitive deterioration and dementia.
Premorbid Intellectual Functioning, Education, and Brain Size in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Investigation of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis
It is suggested that larger premorbid brain volume and higher education level may decrease vulnerability to cognitive deficits following TBI, consistent with the notion of a cognitive reserve.
Cognitive function and frontal lobe atrophy in normal elderly adults: Implications for dementia not as aging‐related disorders and the reserve hypothesis
The present findings suggest that cognitive function is spared by the aging process itself and dementia should be considered as age‐related, not aging‐related disorders, and that education might have a protective effect on cognitive change, supporting the reserve hypothesis.
The Effect of Education on Cognitive Performances and Its Implication for the Constitution of the Cognitive Reserve
The results suggest that the effect of education on cognitive reserve may be explained by an increase in controlled processes and conceptualization abilities, which might delay the clinical expression of neurodegenerative illnesses by maintaining global cognitive efficiency.
Cognitive reserve-mediated modulation of positron emission tomographic activations during memory tasks in Alzheimer disease.
Brain regions where systematic relationships between subjects' education-IQ and brain activation differ as a function of disease status may mediate the differential ability to cope with clinical manifestations of AD.
Brain networks associated with cognitive reserve in healthy young and old adults.
For the old subjects this topography may represent an altered, compensatory network that is used to maintain function in the face of age-related physiological changes, and may represent a neural manifestation of innate or acquired reserve.
Exploring the Neural Basis of Cognitive Reserve
Correlations between fMRI activation and NART scores support the hypothesis that neural processing differs across individuals as a function of CR, and may help explain individual differences in capacity.