Cognitive Reconstruction, Hindsight, and Reactions to Victims and Perpetrators

@article{Carli1999CognitiveRH,
  title={Cognitive Reconstruction, Hindsight, and Reactions to Victims and Perpetrators},
  author={Linda L. Carli},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={1999},
  volume={25},
  pages={966 - 979}
}
  • Linda L. Carli
  • Published 1 August 1999
  • Psychology
  • Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Two studies provide evidence that reconstructive memory contributes to the hindsight bias. In the first study, participants read identical scenarios that either had no ending or ended with a rape. Those receiving the rape ending reconstructed the story to be more stereotypically associated with rape than did those in the no-ending condition. In the second study, participants read an identical scenario that ended in a marriage proposal or a rape. Participants’ memories of the events in the story… 

Tables from this paper

Biases in Blaming Victims of Rape and Other Crime
Objective: This study examines general biases and gender biases in blaming victims of rape and other crimes. General biases operate for any type of victimization and can bias attributions of blame
The Role Of Empathy In Hindsight Bias
Hindsight bias has been operationally defined as “...the tendency for people with outcome knowledge (hindsight) to believe falsely that they would have predicted the reported outcome of an event”
Surprise, memory, and retrospective judgment making: testing cognitive reconstruction theories of the hindsight bias effect.
  • Ivan Ash
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2009
TLDR
A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation, which were interpreted as supporting the general predictions of sense-making models of the hindsight bias.
Hindsight Bias in Judgements of Dating Couples
Hindsight bias, also known as the “I knew it all along” effect, exaggerates our ability to understand our initial perceptions and predictions after something has already occurred. Although hindsight
Hindsight Bias in Depression
People tend to be biased by outcome knowledge when looking back on events. This phenomenon is known as hindsight bias. Clinical intuition and theoretical accounts of affect-regulatory functions of
Not the same old hindsight bias: Outcome information distorts a broad range of retrospective judgments
TLDR
Experiment 2 showed that the effects of hindsight bias were diminished when participants engaged in private thought about the upcoming questions prior to receiving outcome information, suggesting that the effect is not due to impression management concerns.
The Hindsight Bias: Judgment Task Differentiation
THE HINDSIGHT BIAS: JUDGMENT TASK DIFFERENTIATION Ross William May Old Dominion University, 2012 Director: Dr. Ivan K. Ash Recent hindsight bias research suggests that modern Cognitive Reconstruction
Altering Frequency Estimates of Hindsight Bias in Others Via Stereotyping: Asians as a Model Minority
The role racial stereotypes play in influencing attributions of hindsight bias in others was investigated. White college students made frequency estimates of hindsight bias for I of 3 different
Teachers’ Perception of Bullying Among Youth: Hindsight Bias in Relation to Victim Responses
Bullying, a common, persistent, and detrimental occurrence in schools, adversely affects the social, emotional, behavioral , and psychological well-being of children and youth. Independent variables
Victims, Vignettes, and Videos: Meta-Analytic and Experimental Evidence That Emotional Impact Enhances the Derogation of Innocent Victims
TLDR
The first meta-analysis of the experimental literature on the victim derogation effect to test the hypothesis that it varies as a function of the emotional impactfulness of the context for observers found that studies which employed more impactful contexts reported larger derogation effects.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Cognitive biases in blaming the victim
The Effect of Hindsight on Victim Derogation
The purpose of this study was to determine whether reducing the hindsight bias in the case of a victimization would decrease derogation of the victim. Subjects read detailed descriptions of an
Understanding attributions of victim blame for rape: Sex, violence, and foreseeability.
We examined why persons blame some rape victims more than others. In two experiments, college students read nine rape descriptions and assigned blame for each incident. Students were randomly
Effects of stereotypes on decision making and information-processing strategies.
TLDR
Recall data suggested that once a stereotype-based impression of the crime and its determinants was formed, subjects reviewed other available information in an attempt to confirm the implications of this impression, which led to differential recall of presented information, depending on whether its implications were consistent with, inconsistent with, or irrelevant to those of the stereotype.
Social stereotypes and information-processing strategies: the impact of task complexity.
TLDR
Results favored the hypothesis that when subjects face a complex judgmental situation, they use stereotypes (when available and relevant) as a way of simplifying the judgment.
Eliminating the hindsight bias.
Those who consider the likelihood of an event after it has occurred exaggerate their likelihood of having been able to predict that event in advance. We attempted to eliminate this hindsight bias
Reconstructing the Past: Some Cognitive Consequences of Person Perception
An experiment was conducted to investigate systematic retrospective distortions of past events precipitated by one's current beliefs about another individual. Participants read an extensive narrative
Comparison Processes in Hindsight and Causal Attribution
It was hypothesized that hindsight effects and biased causal attributions both result from the causal explanations that perceivers construct when linking antecedents to outcomes at encoding.
Person stereotypes and memory for people.
Snyder and Uranowitz have proposed a memory-priming mechanism by which information about a person that is normally unavailable in episodic memory is made available by the activation of a person
...
...