Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction

  title={Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction},
  author={Paul Chandler and John Sweller},
  journal={Cognition and Instruction},
Cognitive load theory suggests that effective instructional material facilitates learning by directing cognitive resources toward activities that are relevant to learning rather than toward preliminaries to learning. One example of ineffective instruction occurs if learners unnecessarily are required to mentally integrate disparate sources of mutually referring information such as separate text and diagrams. Such split-source information may generate a heavy cognitive load, because material… 
Learning and understanding science instructional material.
Learning and understanding of science instructional material was examined from a cognitive load perspective. It was suggested that instructions can be difficult to learn if multiple elements of
Cognitive load theory as an aid for instructional design
This paper attempts to draw together several recent findings in educational psychology that have led to the development and application of cognitive load theory to the format of instruction (Chandler
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design
Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual
SUMMARY. Cognitive load theory suggests that many conventional inStructional formats are ineffective as they involve extraneous cognitive activities, which interfere with learning. The split­
Levels of Expertise and Instructional Design
It is hypothesized that the appropriate type of structure may depend on the learner's level of expertise, and the best instructional designs changed from ones in which diagrams and text were physically integrated to ones inWhich the text was eliminated.
Using Cognitive Principles to Improve Instructional Procedures
Recent cognitive research indicates that many commonly used instructional techniques are inadequate as they overload limited working memory and interfere with the two primary components of learning,
Cognitive Load While Learning to Use a Computer Program
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many traditional instructional techniques may unnecessarily overload limited working memory and impede learning. Based on cognitive load theory, it
Learning from equations or words
The efficacy of equations or words may depend, in part, on their cognitive load consequences, and when an equation format involves simple equations and familiar notations, it is more effective than an equivalent verbal format which requires substantial reading.
A Study on EFL Instructional Design from the Perspective of Cognitive Load Theory
Cognitive load is commonly defined as the amount of mental effort that performing a specific task imposes on a learner’s cognitive system. For EFL learners, with their limited English proficiency and


Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning
It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of means-ends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing capacity which is consequently unavailable for schema acquisition.
Structuring Effective Worked Examples
Under some conditions, substituting worked examples for problems or exercises enhances learning and subsequent problem solving. Under other conditions, worked examples are no more effective, and
The Use of Worked Examples as a Substitute for Problem Solving in Learning Algebra
The knowledge required to solve algebra manipulation problems and procedures designed to hasten knowledge acquisition were studied in a series of five experiments. It was hypothesized that, as occurs
Learning Mathematics From Examples and by Doing
This article demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of teaching several mathematical skills by presenting students with carefully chosen sequences of worked-out examples and problems -
Cognitive load as a factor in the structuring of technical material.
The authors investigated the usefulness of cognitive concepts in the instruction of technical material.
Locus of Difficulty in Multistage Mathematics Problems
Previous studies have suggested that the use of a means-ends problem-solving strategy imposes a heavy cognitive load which interferes with learning. In this article, we discuss some of the
Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer.
A series of experiments were carried out in which algebra transformation and algebra word problems were used to investigate relations between schema acquisition and rule automation on learning and transfer, hypothesized that schema acquisition would precede rule automation and that it would have a st-like effect.
Consequences of history-cued and means–end strategies in problem solving.
There are two broad processes that people can use when attempting to solve a problem. The first of these is a means-ends strategy in which attempts are made to reduce differences between a given