Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design

  title={Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design},
  author={John Sweller and Jeroen J G van Merrienboer and Fred Paas},
  journal={Educational Psychology Review},
Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. The theory assumes a limited capacity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory/verbal material and visual/2- or 3-dimensional information as well as an effectively unlimited long-term memory, holding schemas that vary in their degree of automation… 

Figures from this paper

Guest editorial Cognitive load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning
This special issue consists of six articles from four countries and three continents on the instructional implications of CLT, which cover presenting instructional techniques for increasing germane CL in cognitive load theory.
Research into Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design at UNSW
Cognitive load theory is an instructional theory generated by this field of research that describes learning structures in terms of an information processing system involving long term memory and working memory, which performs the intellectual tasks associated with consciousness.
Learning and understanding science instructional material.
Learning and understanding of science instructional material was examined from a cognitive load perspective. It was suggested that instructions can be difficult to learn if multiple elements of
Learning Aids and Strategies
The fact that the authors have a limited working memory and an effectively unlimited long-term memory holding automated schemata can be used to derive principles that guide the manner in which information is presented and the activities learners should engage in.
Visualisation and Instructional Design
Human cognitive architecture includes a working memory of limited capacity and duration with partially separate visual and auditory channels, and an effectively infinite long-term memory holding many
Chapter 2: Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Message Design
The goal of Cognitive Load Theory, as it relates to instructional message design, is to present information in a way that enables the learner to process it as efficiently as possible and add it to their brain as learned information.
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design: 20 Years Later
Cognitive load theory was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional design theory based on several uncontroversial aspects of human cognitive architecture. Our knowledge of many of the
Cognitive Load Theory, Spacing Effect, and Working Memory Resources Depletion
This chapter considers recent additions to the theory based on working memory resources depletion that occurs after exerting significant cognitive effort and reverses after a rest period, which has implications for instructional design.
Toward a Synthesis of Cognitive Load Theory, Four-Component Instructional Design, and Self-Directed Learning
This article explores the opportunities to apply cognitive load theory and four-component instructional design to self-directed learning. Learning tasks are defined as containing three elements:
A Cognitive model to enhance learning outcomes in Computing
Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) provides a basis for the development of teaching and learning materials which are more effective than conventional approaches. CLT suggests that learning happens best


Levels of Expertise and Instructional Design
It is hypothesized that the appropriate type of structure may depend on the learner's level of expertise, and the best instructional designs changed from ones in which diagrams and text were physically integrated to ones inWhich the text was eliminated.
Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction
Cognitive load theory suggests that effective instructional material facilitates learning by directing cognitive resources toward activities that are relevant to learning rather than toward
Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks
Limited processing capacity constrains learning and performance in complex cognitive tasks. In traditional instruction, novices' failure to adequately learn cognitive tasks can often be attributed to
Cognitive Load While Learning to Use a Computer Program
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many traditional instructional techniques may unnecessarily overload limited working memory and impede learning. Based on cognitive load theory, it
SUMMARY. Cognitive load theory suggests that many conventional inStructional formats are ineffective as they involve extraneous cognitive activities, which interfere with learning. The split­
Abstract This paper is concerned with some of the factors that determine the difficulty of material that needs to be learned. It is suggested that when considering intellectual activities, schema
Cognitive load effects in a primary-school geometry task
Abstract Cognitive load theory suggests that some instructional procedures are ineffective because they require students to engage in superfluous cognitive activities purely because of the manner in
Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning
  • J. Sweller
  • Psychology, Computer Science
    Cogn. Sci.
  • 1988
It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of means-ends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing capacity which is consequently unavailable for schema acquisition.
Why Some Material Is Difficult to Learn
The experiments reported in this article flow from the following assumptions concerning our cognitive processes: (a) Schema acquisition and automation are major learning mechanisms when dealing with
Automation and schema acquisition in learning elementary computer programming : implications for the design of practice
The authors argue that conventional training strategies in elementary programming provide little guidance to the learner and offer little opportunities for mindful abstraction, which results in suboptimal automation and schema acquisition.