Cognition and Improvisation: Differences in Mathematics Instruction by Expert and Novice Teachers

  title={Cognition and Improvisation: Differences in Mathematics Instruction by Expert and Novice Teachers},
  author={Hilda Borko and Carol Livingston},
This study investigates the nature of pedagogical expertise by comparing the planning, teaching, and postlesson reflections of three student teachers (two secondary and one elementary) with those of the cooperating teachers with whom they were placed. Participants were observed teaching mathematics for 1 week of instruction and were interviewed prior to and following each lesson. Differences in the thinking and actions of these experts and novices were analyzed by perceiving teaching both as a… 

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A Study of Teacher Planning

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  • Education
    The Elementary School Journal
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