Coextinction and persistence of dependent species in a changing world

@article{Colwell2012CoextinctionAP,
  title={Coextinction and persistence of dependent species in a changing world},
  author={Robert K. Colwell and Robert R. Dunn and Nyeema C. Harris},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={2012},
  volume={43},
  pages={183-203}
}
The extinction of a single species is rarely an isolated event. Instead, dependent parasites, commensals, and mutualist partners (affiliates) face the risk of coextinction as their hosts or partners decline and fail. Species interactions in ecological networks can transmit the effects of primary extinctions within and between trophic levels, causing secondary extinctions and extinction cascades. Documenting coextinctions is complicated by ignorance of host specificity, limitations of historical… 

Figures from this paper

A simple stochastic model for complex coextinctions in mutualistic networks: robustness decreases with connectance.

It is shown that the traditional topological model may either underestimate or overestimate the number and likelihood of coextinctions, depending on the intrinsic dependence of species on the mutualism, and contrary to topological models, the stochastic model predicts extinction cascades to be more likely in highly connected mutualistic communities.

Predictions of primate–parasite coextinction

It is revealed that host extinctions will perturb the host–parasite network and potentially lead to secondary extinctions of parasites, and the ecological consequences of these extinctions remain unclear.

The ghost of hosts past: impacts of host extinction on parasite specificity

It is suggested that an improved understanding of the impact of host extinction on contemporary host–parasite interactions may shed light on core aspects of disease ecology, including comparative studies of host specificity, virulence evolution in multi-host parasite systems, and future trajectories for host and parasite biodiversity.

Host diversity drives parasite diversity: meta-analytical insights into patterns and causal mechanisms

The present meta-analysis examined 38 case studies on the relationship between species richness of hosts and parasites, and is the first attempt to provide insights into the patterns and causal mechanisms of parasite biodiversity at the community level using meta-regression models.

The role of evolutionary modes for trait-based cascades in mutualistic networks

The role of trait evolutionary dynamics on the robustness of mutualistic networks undergoing the following scenarios of species loss is investigated, showing that the mode of trait evolution matters for network robustness in all three scenarios.

The indirect paths to cascading effects of extinctions in mutualistic networks.

This work estimates indirect effects in plant-pollinator networks and finds that even those species with several direct interactions may have much of their influence over others through long indirect paths, allowing predicting species' vulnerability to the cascading effects of an extinction event.

Including rewiring in the estimation of the robustness of mutualistic networks

Species are entangled within communities by their interactions in such a manner that their local extinction may unchain coextinction cascades and impact community dynamics and stability. Despite
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES

The sixth mass coextinction: are most endangered species parasites and mutualists?

This work discusses the interactions and synergies between coextinction and other drivers of species loss, particularly climate change, and suggests the way forward for understanding the phenomenon of co Extinction, which may well be the most insidious threat to global biodiversity.

Species Coextinctions and the Biodiversity Crisis

This model examines the relationship between coextinction levels (proportion of species extinct) of affiliates and their hosts across a wide range of coevolved interspecific systems and estimates that 6300 affiliate species are “coendangered” with host species currently listed as endangered.

Coevolutionary Dynamics and the Conservation of Mutualisms

An increased focus on interspecific interactions will enlighten efforts to conserve species and improve the ability to understand when species will and will not respond evolutionarily to conservation threats.

Current Constraints and Future Directions in Estimating Coextinction

Without synergistic development of better empirical data and more realistic models to estimate the number of cothreatened species and coextinction rates, the contribution of co Extinction to global declines in biodiversity will remain unknown and unmanaged.

Trophically Unique Species Are Vulnerable to Cascading Extinction

Analysis of natural and model food webs show that secondary extinctions cause loss of trophic diversity greater than that expected from chance, a result that is robust to variation in food web structure, distribution of interactions strengths, functional response, and adaptive foraging.

Biodiversity loss decreases parasite diversity: theory and patterns

  • K. Lafferty
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2012
In empirical food webs with random removals of free- Living species, the relationship between free-living species richness and parasite richness was, on average, quasi-linear, suggesting biodiversity loss reduces parasite diversity more than previously thought.

Non-random coextinctions in phylogenetically structured mutualistic networks

This work uses phylogenetic methods to show that the phylogenetic relationships of species predict the number of interactions they exhibit in more than one-third of the networks, and the identity of the species with which they interact in about half of the Networks.

Can early loss of affiliates explain the coextinction paradox? An example from Acacia-inhabiting psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

This work investigated whether the coextinction paradox is due to affiliates becoming extinct well ahead of their hosts, with the disjunction masking the co Extinction event, and found no support for reduced affiliate specialisation on the threatened hosts.

Species loss and secondary extinctions in simple and complex model communities.

It is shown that complex communities are, on average, more resistant to species loss than simple communities: the number of secondary extinctions decreases with increasing connectance, however, complex Communities are more vulnerable to loss of top predators thansimple communities.
...