OBJECTIVE Our study aimed to explore associations between metabolic control, oxidative stress and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in relation to diabetes complications in a representative population of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A geographic cohort of 156 subjects was recruited. Serum concentrations of CoQ10 and vitamin E were measured by HPLC. ROS was determined by free oxygen radicals testing (FORT). Glutaredoxin (Grx) activity, oxidized LDL cholesterol (oxLDLc), high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), HbA1c, urine albumin, serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and plasma lipids were assayed with routine laboratory protocols. RESULTS Serum CoQ10 was higher than in nondiabetics. HbA1c, fP-glucose, hyperlipidemia, inflammation (hsCRP), and increased BMI were associated with signs of oxidative stress as increased levels of FORT, Grx activity and/or increased levels of oxLDLc Oxidative stress was found to be strongly correlated with prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN). In both gender groups there were positive correlations between CoQ10 and oxLDLc, and between BMI and the ratio CoQ10/chol. Grx activity was inversely correlated to oxLDLc and CoQ10. Women with CVD and PSN had higher waist index, oxLDLc, and FORT levels compared to men but lower CoQ10 levels. Men had worse kidney function and lower vitamin E. Multiple regression analysis showed increased levels of CoQ10 to be significantly correlated with increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, vitamin E, fB-glucose and BMI. CONCLUSIONS Hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and inflammation were associated with oxidative stress, which was correlated to the prevalence of diabetes complications. CoQ10 was increased in response to oxidative stress. There were gender differences in the risk factors associated with diabetes complications.