Codon and amino-acid specificities of a transfer RNA are both converted by a single post-transcriptional modification

@article{Muramatsu1988CodonAA,
  title={Codon and amino-acid specificities of a transfer RNA are both converted by a single post-transcriptional modification},
  author={Tomonari Muramatsu and Kazuya Nishikawa and Fumiko Nemoto and Yoshiyuki Kuchino and Susumu Nishimura and Tatsuo Miyazawa and Shigeyuki Yokoyama},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1988},
  volume={336},
  pages={179-181}
}
An Escherichia coli isoleucine transfer RNA specific for the codon AUA (tRNA2Ile or tRNAminorIle (ref. 1) has a novel modified nucleo-side, lysidine (L; ref. 2) (Fig. la) in the first position of the anticodon (position 34), which is essential for the specific recognition of the codon AUA (ref. 1). We isolated the gene for tRNA2Ile (ileX) and found that the anticodon is CAT, which is characteristic of the methionine tRNA gene. Replacement of L(34) of tRNA2Ile molecule enzymatically with… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is shown that the TilS enzyme specifically recognizes and modifies tRNAIle2 in its precursor form, thereby avoiding translation errors and providing a rationale for the necessity of incorporating specific modifications at the precursor level during tRNA biogenesis.
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TLDR
This review will focus on the current understanding of this RNA:protein interaction between Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNAG1n.
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TLDR
Results of combinatorial mutagenesis of an anticodon-binding-helix loop peptide were used to design a hybrid sequence composed of amino acid residues from methionyl- and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases, and the swap of a single amino acid in the transplanted peptide switches specificity between anticodons that differ by one nucleotide.
The anticodon contains a major element of the identity of arginine transfer RNAs.
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TLDR
The present knowledge indicates that each of these functions is distributed along the aaRS polypeptide through the formation of specialized domains, including activation of the amino acid and recognition of the tRNA molecule.
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