We report the first three cases of peritonitis due to the fungus Coccidioides immitis occurring during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had evidence of active infection outside of the peritoneal cavity. Clues suggesting the diagnosis including a previous history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, an excess number of eosinophils in the peritoneal fluid, and failure to respond to therapy directed against bacteria. C immitis in peritoneal fluid was more readily isolated on specific fungal culture media than on routine bacterial culture media. In no instances did potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations of the fluid reveal fungi. Coccidioidal peritonitis during CAPD appears to be a localized form of extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis that has a relatively benign course once the peritoneal catheter is removed.