Cobalt ions inhibit negative feedback in the outer retina by blocking hemichannels on horizontal cells.

@article{Fahrenfort2004CobaltII,
  title={Cobalt ions inhibit negative feedback in the outer retina by blocking hemichannels on horizontal cells.},
  author={Iris Fahrenfort and Trijntje Sjoerdsma and Harris Ripps and Maarten Kamermans},
  journal={Visual neuroscience},
  year={2004},
  volume={21 4},
  pages={501-11}
}
In goldfish, negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones shifts the activation function of the Ca2+ current of the cones to more negative potentials. This shift increases the amount of Ca2+ flowing into the cones, resulting in an increase in glutamate release. The increased glutamate release forms the basis of the feedback-mediated responses in second-order neurons, such as the surround-induced responses of bipolar cells and the spectral coding of horizontal cells. Low concentrations of… CONTINUE READING

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