Cobalt from metal-on-metal hip replacements may be the clinically relevant active agent responsible for periprosthetic tissue reactions.

@article{Hart2012CobaltFM,
  title={Cobalt from metal-on-metal hip replacements may be the clinically relevant active agent responsible for periprosthetic tissue reactions.},
  author={Alister Hart and Paul. D. Quinn and Ferdinand V. Lali and Barry Sampson and J. Andrew Skinner and Jonathan J. S. Powell and John Nolan and Keith Tucker and Simon T Donell and Adrienne Margaret Flanagan and J Frederick W Mosselmans},
  journal={Acta biomaterialia},
  year={2012},
  volume={8 10},
  pages={3865-73}
}
Some types of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements have unacceptably high rates of failure, such as the Ultima TPS MOM hip, with 13.8% failure at 5 years. This has been attributed to an inflammatory reaction following the release of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) from the bearing surfaces and modular junctions. There is in vitro evidence that Co is more important than Cr in the inflammatory process, but there are no reported human tissue studies of the analysis of implant-derived metals. 

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