Coat Color Variation and Pigmentation Gene Expression in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

  title={Coat Color Variation and Pigmentation Gene Expression in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)},
  author={Brenda J. Bradley and Melissa S. Gerald and Anja Widdig and Nicholas I. Mundy},
  journal={Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
Light-dark coat color variation is a common aspect of color diversity within and across mammalian taxa. This variation in pelage brightness is associated with aspects of evolutionary ecology, particularly for primates, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying light-dark differences in pelage pigmentation. Previous work, focusing particularly on macaques (Genus Macaca), has found no clear relationship between color variation and coding sequences of key pigmentation genes. This… 

Functional divergence of the pigmentation gene melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) in six endemic Macaca species on Sulawesi Island

The results suggest that fixed differences in MC1R resulted in different functional characteristics and might contribute to divergence in color among the six Sulawesi macaque species.

Regulatory pathway analysis of coat color genes in Mongolian horses

Findings show that the transcription profiles from white and black horse skin provide useful information to understand the genetics underlying the control of skin melanin synthesis in horses, which may enhance the knowledge of human skin diseases, such as melanoma and albinism.

Examining the molecular basis of coat color in a nocturnal primate family (Lorisidae)

This study finds that Lorisidae MC1R is under purifying selection, generates new insight into the genetics of pelage color and evolution among a unique group of nocturnal mammals and suggest putative underpinnings of monochromatic color evolution in the Perodicticus lineage.

The Evolutionary Ecology of Primate Hair Coloration: A Phylogenetic Approach

This work uses phylogenetic methods to examine how different traits are associated with the evolutionary diversity of primate hair color, and suggests that selective pressures are acting independently across body regions and across different primate taxa.

Did Trichromatic Color Vision and Red Hair Color Coevolve in Primates?

The results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates, and the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected.

MC1R Genotype and Plumage Colouration in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata): Population Structure Generates Artefactual Associations

The results are consistent with a previous study that found no association between MC1R polymorphism and plumage coloration in leaf warblers and contribute towards a growing body of evidence suggesting that care should be taken to quantify, and where necessary control for, population structure in association studies.

Transcriptome analysis identifies candidate genes associated with skin color variation in Triplophysa siluroides.

Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin and the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color.

Elucidating the mechanisms or interactions involved in differing hair color follicles

In this study, 872 individuals were genotyped at 61 associative and predictive pigmentation markers from several diverse population subsets in an effort to detect epistatic interactions and their influence on hair color prediction models.



Adaptive Variation in Beach Mice Produced by Two Interacting Pigmentation Genes

It is demonstrated that cryptic coloration can be based largely on a few interacting genes of major effect, including the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) and its antagonist, the Agouti signaling protein (Agouti).

Evolution of a pigmentation gene, the melanocortin-1 receptor, in primates.

The molecular evolution of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene was investigated in a broad range of primate species, including several groups with large differences in distribution of orange/red and black hairs.

Variation of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene in the macaques

The molecular evolutionary analysis has revealed that nonsynonymous substitution/synonymous substitution (dN/dS) ratio of the MC1R has not been uniform in the macaque groups and, moreover, their coat color and dN/DS ratio were not related.

Pelage Color Variation of Macaca arctoides and Its Evolutionary Implications

It is hypothesized that the distinctive polymorphism in southern Thailand resulted from geographical isolation caused by the Pleistocene eustatic fluctuations and subsequent recovery of land connection and subsequent gene flow.

Genetics, development and evolution of adaptive pigmentation in vertebrates

The study of pigmentation has played an important role in the intersection of evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Pigmentation's utility as a visible phenotypic marker has resulted in

Investigation of the role of the agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) in coat color evolution in primates

Analysis of dN/dS ratios revealed a likely change in functional constraint on ASIP following loss of agouti-banded hairs + pale ventral coloration, particularly in catarrhine primates, suggesting that other loci probably have an important role in primate coat color evolution.

A window on the genetics of evolution: MC1R and plumage colouration in birds

  • N. Mundy
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2005
Results show that melanism was a derived trait and allow other evolutionary inferences about the history of melanism to be made, and the role of MC1R in plumage patterning is surprisingly diverse among different species.

Vertebrate pigmentation: from underlying genes to adaptive function.

Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism.

The genetic basis of blue eyes in lemurs differs from that of humans, and this region is strongly conserved in both Eulemur macaco subspecies as well as the other primates (except blue-eyed humans).

Variations in the Coding Region of the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene Do Not Explain Agouti/Non-agouti Phenotypes in Macaques

Results indicated that the variation in the protein coding region of ASIP did not explain the non-agouti dark coat color in the macaques, and upstream regulatory regions of AsIP and other genes participating in pigmentation system remain to be investigated for the hair color variation in macaques.