The ability of oral lactobacilli to coaggregate with streptococci and actinomycetes was investigated. Of the 7 species of lactobacilli studied, only two were capable of coaggregation and the coaggregation was restricted to streptococci. Lactobacillus salivarius strains (2/4) coaggregated with Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus crista and tufted Streptococcus sanguis II strains. Lactobacillus fermentum (2/3) coaggregated with S. gordonii and S. sanguis. The coaggregation between L. salivarius and S. salivarius, S. gordonii or tufted S. sanguis II strains was mediated by a protein on the surface of the lactobacilli and was not inhibited by lactose. The coaggregation between L. fermentum and the streptococci was mediated by protein on the surface of the streptococci and was inhibited by lactose.