Co-stimulatory and Co-inhibitory Pathways in Autoimmunity.

  title={Co-stimulatory and Co-inhibitory Pathways in Autoimmunity.},
  author={Qianxia Zhang and Dario A A Vignali},
  volume={44 5},
The immune system is guided by a series of checks and balances, a major component of which is a large array of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways that modulate the host response. Although co-stimulation is essential for boosting and shaping the initial response following signaling through the antigen receptor, inhibitory pathways are also critical for modulating the immune response. Excessive co-stimulation and/or insufficient co-inhibition can lead to a breakdown of self-tolerance and… CONTINUE READING
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